Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- 6th century BCE

Online resources

Web sites of general interest

  1. Wikipedia – Lemnian Language
    Page of Wikipedia dedicated to the Lemnian language, with a correct transcription of the stele of Kaminia, and of the new inscription from Hephaistia (area of the theatre).
  2. Where Did The Etruscans Come From?
    Page in English and German dedicated to the relationships between Etruscan and Lemnian, in the website by D. Steinbauer (Regensburg), a scholar specialized in Etruscan language.
  3. Lingua etrusca (OwlApps)
    Popular site with information on the Tyrrhenian languages and their relationships: it is better documented on Etruscan than on Rhaetic and Lemnian.
  4. Dictionary SensAgent
    Informative page on the Lemnian language taken from an older version of the Italian Wikipedia page: note that the Kaminia stele transcription is more accurate in its use of "h" for het, but transcribes omicron as "u." Other similar old or new excerpts from Wikipedia can also be found at the addresses: and
  5. Oxford Classical Dictionary
    Accurate encyclopedic English entry devoted to the Lemnian language by Rex Wallace, with a transcription of the Kaminia and of the Hephaestia inscriptions and including valuable linguistic commentary and bibliography updated to 2012.
  6. Lemnian language (Hellenicaworld)
    English page taken from a chapter in R.D. Morritt's volume, Stones that speak (2010), in the part where he discusses the Kaminia stele and the language of Lemnos: fairly accurate, but still preceding the publication of the Ephestia inscription and more recent acquisitions.
  7. Enciclopedia dell’Arte Antica
    Encyclopedic entry in Italian edited by Luigi Bernabò Brea from the Enciclopedia dell'Arte Antica (1961), including knowledge on the archaeology and history of the island and a bibliography, updated at the year of issue.

Online documents

  1. Nuova iscrizione di Lemnos, isola greca dell’Egeo nord orientale [New inscription of Lemnos, in the northeast Aegean island]
    Short page announcing the discovery of the new inscription from Hephaistia (area of the theatre), edited by the website "Accademia dei tuttologi". In Italian.
  2. C. de Simone, La Nuova Iscrizione ‘Tirsenica’ di Lemnos (Efestia, teatro): considerazioni generali [The New Tyrsenian inscription of Lemnos (Hephaistia, theater): general considerations]
    Important contribution by the linguist Carlo de Simone, great specialist of Lemnian language, published in the journal Rasenna: Journal of the Center for Etruscan Studies, Vol. 3: Iss. 1, 2011. Its contents provide a great deal of information about the new discoveries on the subject of the Lemnian language deriving from the inscription. In Italian.

Institutions, centers for study and research

  1. The linguist list - The Lemnian Language
    Sheet on the Lemnian language within a broad database on the languages of the world (ODIN: Online Database of Interlinear Text), edited by the Eastern Michigan University.
  2. Lingua lemnia (Dbpedia)
    Brief encyclopedic entry, in Italian, French and English, devoted to the language of Lemnos as part of an open data collection.


  1. S.P. Cortsen, Die lemnische Inschrift, ein Deutungsversuch (1929)

    Collection of titles and publications on the Lemnian language and writing system, in many cases accessible to registered users of the site: registration is free and the collection is progressively updated by new contributions from scholars registered on the portal. Research on other related topics is available as needed.


  1. Translating a new Lemnian inscription (Paleoglot)
    Comment page on the new Lemnian inscription from Hephaistia (area of the theatre), edited by Glen Gordon, referencing the announcement of the epigraphic discovery by Michael Weiss.
  2. Blog: New Lemnian Inscription (R. Wallace)
    Page of the blog on epigraphic novelties of pre-Roman Italy, linked to the journal "Rasenna", edited by Rex Wallace, Professor of Linguistics at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. The page is specifically dedicated to the monumental inscription from Hephaistia (area of the theatre), recently discovered.
  3. The Lemnos Stele (Eteocretan Language Pages)
    Page on the stele of Kaminia by the Welsh scholar Raymond Armar Ignatius Brown, in the context of his studies on the Pelasgians and the languages of the Aegean area.
  4. Blog: A New Lemnian Inscription (M. Weiss)
    Page of the blog "Addenda and Corrigenda" referring to the volume "Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin" (Ann Arbor, 2009), dedicated to the recently-discovered inscription from Hephaistia. The page, opened by the American linguist Michael Weiss, Professor at Cornell University, is full of information, comments, and questions by specialists and scholars interested in the subject.