Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- end 3rd millennium BC-end 2nd millennium BC

Online resources

Institutions, centers for study and research

  1. Urkeš, an Overview (G. Buccellati, in collaboration with F.A. Buccellati)
    This page is edited by G. Buccellati, director of the archaeological mission at Tell Mozan (Syria), the ancient Urkeš, an important center for the Hurrian culture. The site offers exhaustive information about the history of the city and its role in the Hurrian civilization of the Syro-Mesopotamian area. Besides this, there are reports about the excavations and the restoration techniques of the findings.
  2. Institut für Altorientalistik - Freie Universität - Berlin
    The institute is developing a research project, "The Hurrian Texts from Emar – An Example of Knowledge Transfer in a Multilingual Environment", dedicated to texts in Hurrian language and cuneiform writing found in the Syrian city of Emar (today Tell Meskene). These texts related to hepatoscopy will be studied from a comparative perspective by associating them with similar texts found in the Hittite capital Hattuša.


  1. Silvin Košak, Konkordanz der hethitischen Keilschrifttafeln, On-Line Datenbank
    In the search engine of the Hittite cuneiform texts, published and constantly updated by its author Silvin Košak, there is a classification of the Hurrian texts coming from the territories of the Hittite Empire (15th-13th centuries BC). It is possible to have access to the photos of many texts, of the join sketches, if present, and of the signed copies of the tablets. For each fragment of tablet the date, the find spot, if known, and the most recent bibliography about it are given.

Collections of texts and digital libraries

  1. Edition électronique de textes cunéiformes de Nuzi : les archives du palais (XIVème s. av. J.-C.)(ed. Philippe Abrahami)
    Critical edition of Nuzi texts (today Yorghan Tepe), a small peripheral center under the control of Mittani Kingdom (14th century).