Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- 12th century BC - 2nd century AD

Online resources

Web sites of general interest

  1. - Carthage
    Page dedicated to Carthage on the, a site featuring articles about ancient history, maintained by Jona Lendering.
  2. Encyclopedia Phoeniciana
    A large compilation of web resources about origin, history, geography, religion, arts, trade, industry, mythology, language, literature, music, wars, archaeology and culture of the Phoenicians by Georges Elias, Sydney (Australia).

Online documents

  1. Syria
    Site of the journal Syria, published by the Institut Français du Proche-Orient. Articles from 2006 onwards can be downloaded from the site.
  2. Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici sul Vicino Oriente Antico
    Site of "Epigraphic and linguistic studies about the Ancient Near East": a page taken from the journal with this name. The site features a number of years in full text. archeological expedition in Tel Dor.
  3. Syria (in Persée)
    Syria, journal published by the Institut Français du Proche-Orient. Articles from 1920 until 2005 can be downloaded from the site.
  4. H. Gzella, Phoenician
    Chapter from the open access book by H. Gzella, Languages from the World of the Bible, 2011, with an overview on the Phoenician language and writing system.
  5. Cartagine. Studi e ricerche
    Website of the journal Cartagine. Studi e ricerche, pubblicazione della Società Scientifica Scuola Archeologica Italiana di Cartagine (SAIC). All articles are in open access.
  6. Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften
    Wikiwand page presenting the text in its original language, together with photos and information gathered from the web, of many Phoenician inscriptions organized according to the edition of H. Donner - W. Röllig, Kanaanäische und aramäische Inschriften, Wiesbaden 1966-1969.

Institutions, centers for study and research

  1. Progetto Algeria punica
    Website about the Phoenician-Punic civilization in Algeria, which developed between the 8th and the 1st century BC and in particular about the city of Iol-Caesarea (now Cherchel), a city with a double name (Iol in the Punic world, Caesarea in the Roman era). The project is managed by the Istituto di Studi sul Mediterraneo Antico (CNR-ISMA).[see "Institutions" below].
  2. The Tel Dor Archaeological Expedition
    Site of the archeological expedition in Tel Dor.

Museums and collections

  1. British Museum, Collection database search
    Research page of the British Museum of London. Hundreds of photos of Phoenician and Punic archeological finds can be seen here.

Collections of texts and digital libraries

  1. Neo-Punic Texts
    Neo-Punic Texts. From K. Jongeling's website (Author of the Handbook of Neo-Punic Inscriptions, Tübingen 2008)
  2. TOCS-IN Tables of Contents of Journals of Interest to Classicists
    TOCS-IN allows users to search the bibliographies of articles in nearly 200 scholarly journals in the fields of classics or the ancient orient, from 1992 onwards.


  1. Centro de Estudios Fenicios y Púnicos
    This site was maintained by the Department of Ancient History at the Faculty of Geography and History of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (unfortunately not updated).


  1. A bibliography of semitic linguistics
    Extensive online bibliography of Semitic linguistics, maintained by G. del Olmo Lete. Contains a good section on Phoenician-Punic. Materials can be downloaded in .pdf format.