Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- 6th – 1st centuries BC

Online resources

Institutions, centers for study and research

  1. Viaje al tiempo de los Iberos (Jaén)
    Viaje al tiempo de los Iberos proposes an itinerary through the archaeological sites of Andalucía, from Iberian to Roman times.
  2. Ruta Ibèrica Valenciana
    The Ruta Ibèrica Valenciana completes the Ruta dels Ibers and Iberos en el Bajo Aragon. These projects form a panorama of Iberian archaeological sites both on the Mediterranean shore and in the interior.
  3. Iberos en Aragón
    Iberos en Aragón is a cultural project, coordinated by the Gobierno de Aragon. It offers various routes of archaeological sites and cultural activities in order to better understand the peoples and cultures of Aragon.
  4. La ruta dels Ibers
    La Ruta dels Ibers is a cultural project for tourism, coordinated by the Museu d’Arqueologia de Catalunya (MAC, Barcelona). It offers various itineraries of archaeological sites, in order to better understand the peoples and cultures of Catalunya.
  5. AELAW
    Research group derived from the project COST IS 1407 Ancient European Languages and Writings including about fifteen scholars of fragmentary languages, among which some specialists in Paleohispanic languages.

Study and research centers

  1. Universidad de Zaragoza
    The Hiberus research group studies the elite and their behavior mainly in the ideological field during the construction of power in pre-Roman and Roman Spain. Religious ideology is particularly studied, as are the political solutions to major changes of power when the Romans invaded the Iberian Peninsula.
  2. Archivo Epigráfico de Hispania - Universidad Complutense de Madrid
    The «Textos epigráficos antiguos de la Península Ibérica» project works mainly with Latin inscriptions from the Peninsula but is useful for inscriptions that refer to indigenous anthroponymy.
  3. Universidad de Barcelona
    Littera (acronym for « Laboratorio de Investigación y Tratamiento de Textos Epigráficos Romanos y Antiguos ») is a group, formed by researchers from the Latin philology department working on Latin and Palaeohispanic epigraphy.


  1. Hesperia
    Large reference database on languages and scripts from the Iberian Peninsula, it is the result of collaboration among various Spanish universities and research groups. Started in 1997, the project is now directed by Joaquín Gorrochategui (University of the Basqu Country). The site includes bibliography and maps. Almost all sections are freely accessible. A numismatic section, an onomastic database for indigenous anthroponymy in Latin inscriptions and lexical elements are also available.
  2. Coins
    A website that draws up an inventory of all coins from the Iberian Peninsula, classified by geographical areas and identified people with a short abstract showing origin, chronology, drawings of each side of the coin, and the text in Palaeohispanic script.
  3. Search engine for words in Iberian texts (re-transcribed)
    This website allows users to find any kind of occurrence of a syntagm in Palaeohispanic inscriptions. Conversely, transcription of any text published in the MLH (Monumenta Linguarum Hispanicarum) can be found by typing its reference (region letter, site number and inscription number)
  4. Iberian
    Moncunill, N., Velaza, J., « Iberian », Palaeohispanica, n° 20, mai 2020, p. 591-629.
    State of the art about the Iberian position among fragmentarily attested languages in pre-Roman western areas.

Museums and collections

  1. Museo arqueológico nacional. Madrid
    In these collections one can find the famous Dama de Elche, but also spectacular pieces such as Dama de Baza, sculptures form Porcuna or the lead plaque from Castellón.
  2. Museo de Prehistoria de Valencia
    One of the oldest museums dedicated to Iberian culture, it possesses in particular a great collection of painted vases from Llíria and many written lead plaques.
  3. Museo de Arqueología de Alicante (MARQ)
    This museum, featuring spectacular museography, showcases important artefacts from Contestania, an area which is generally considered the cradle of Iberian culture.
  4. Museo d’Arqueologia de Catalunya
    This museum in Barcelona contains mainly artefacts from Catalan archaeological sites, with sections dedicated to the most important Iberian archaeological sites: Ampurias, Olerdola and Ullastret.

Collections of texts and digital libraries

  1. Hispania Epigraphica online
    Online database of Latin inscriptions of the Iberian Peninsula whose pdf versions are available in the website of the journal Hispania Epigraphica (


  1. Journal : Palaeohispanica
    Palaeohispanica, revista sobre lenguas y culturas de la Hispania Antigua, Institución « Fernando el Católico ». Publication of the Universidad de Zaragoza. ISSN 1578-5386. Can be downloaded.
  2. Synthetic bibliography
    Bibliographic overview classified by themes. The entire bibliography on the Paleohispanic languages and culture is available on Hesperia. The database can be searched by author, year, title or place of publication (
  3. Journal : Arse
    Boletín annual del Centro Arqueológico Saguntino. ISSN: 0213-8026. Entirely digitalized (1957-).
  4. Journal : Veleia
    Revista de Prehistoria, Historia Antigua, Arqueología y Filología Clásicas Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU. ISSN : 0213-2095 (1984-). Tables of contents since 1984 are available on Dialnet.
  5. Journal : Archivo español de Arqueología
    Publication du Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. ISSN : 0066-6742 (1940-). Articles downloadable. Tables of contents since 1975 are available on Dialnet.
  6. Journal : Complutum
    Revista de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. ISSN 1131-6993 (1991-).
  7. Journal : Emerita
    Revista de Lingüística y Filología Clásica. ISSN: 0013-6662 (1933-). Tables of contents since 1972 are available on Dialnet.
  8. Journal : Lucentum
    Anales de la universidad de Alicante. Prehistoria, arqueología e historia Antigua. ISSN: 0213-2338 (1982-). Tables of contents since 1982 are available on Dialnet (issues can be downloaded).
  9. Revista portuguesa de arqueología
    Publication of the Instituto de Gestão do Patrimonio Arquitectónico e Arqueológico. Ministério da Cultura. ISSN : 0874-2782 (1998-).
  10. Ibérico. Lengua | Escritura | Epigrafía
    A short presentation of the Iberian writing system, language and epigraphy derived from the project COST AELAW (Ancient European Languages and Writings). It can be purchased from Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza.
  11. Hispania Epigraphica
    Produced by the Archivo Epigráfico de Hispania - Universidad Complutense de Madrid. In the online update of the volumes of Hispania Epigraphica, users may consult new epigraphic items from the Iberian Peninsula, mostly Latin inscriptions.