Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- 10th cent. B.C. - today

Map of places

  1. Al-Hadr; Hedhar (Place held), 'Middle Aramaic II' (Example)
  2. Al-Hadr; Hedhar (Place held), 'Middle Aramaic: Hatran inscription (Temple of Allat, Hatra, 2nd cent. A.D.)' (image)
  3. Aleppo (Place held), 'Old Aramaic' (Example)
  4. Aleppo (Provenance), 'Official Aramaic II' (Example)
  5. Aleppo (Provenance), 'Official Aramaic: lower part of the Nerab inscription (7th cent. B.C.)' (image)
  6. Anatolia (Diffusion area)
  7. Assur (Qal'at Sherqat) (Place found), 'Official Aramaic III' (Example)
  8. Dead Sea (Place found), 'Middle Aramaic: fragment of a letter of Simon Bar-Kosibah (Palestine, 132-135 A.D.)' (image)
  9. Egypt (Provenance), 'Official Aramaic IV' (Example)
  10. Elephantine (Place found), 'Official Aramaic VI' (Example)
  11. Elephantine (Provenance), 'Official Aramaic V' (Example)
  12. Elymais (Provenance), 'Middle Aramaic IV' (Example)
  13. Khirbet Qumran (Provenance), 'Middle Aramaic: Genesis Apocryphon (Qumran, 1st cent. B.C. - 1st cent. A.D.)' (image)
  14. Mesopotamia (Provenance), 'Late Aramaic I' (Example)
  15. Mesopotamia (Provenance), 'Late Aramaic II' (Example)
  16. Mesopotamia (Provenance), 'Late Aramaic: a section of the Mandaic religious text known as "The Baptism of Hibil Ziwa". The book features instructions and prayers for the baptism of a priest who lost the ritual purity.' (image)
  17. Nisa (Place found), 'Aramaic script and Iranian languages' (Example)
  18. Palmyra; Tadmor (Place held), 'Middle Aramaic III' (Example)
  19. Palmyra; Tadmor (Provenance), 'Middle Aramaic: Palmyrene relief dedicated to the gods Bel, Baalshamin, Yarhibol and Aglibol (Palmyra, 121 A.D.)' (image)
  20. Persepolis (Place found), 'Official Aramaic: tablet with administrative record (Persepolis, 6th-5th cent. B.C.)' (image)
  21. Petra (Place held), 'Middle Aramaic I' (Example)
  22. Seleucia on the Tigris (Place found), 'Aramaic script and Iranian languages: Parthian inscription on the bronze statue of Heracles from Seleucia on the Tigris (2nd cent. A.D.)' (image)
  23. Serrin / Manbij (Place held), 'Late Aramaic: early Syriac inscription from a tomb-tower in Serrin (Syria, 73 A.D.)' (image)
  24. Syria (Place of origin)
  25. Tarsus (Provenance), 'Official Aramaic: coin of the satrap Mazaios with Aramaic legend (Cilicia, 361-364 B.C.)' (image)
  26. Tayma (Place found), 'Official Aramaic: Aramaic dedication from Tayma (Northern Arabia, 5th-4th century B.C.)' (image)
  27. Zenjirli (Place found), 'Official Aramaic I' (Example)
  28. Zenjirli (Provenance), 'Official Aramaic: second inscription of Bar-Rakib (second half of the 8th cent. B.C.)' (image)