Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- (12th century BC? - today)


  1. Salomo A.Birnbaum (1957-1971) The Hebrew Scripts Brill (en)
  2. Frank M.Cross Jr. (1961) The Development of the Jewish Scripts in The Bible and the Ancient Near East: Essays in Honor of William Foxwell Albright Doubleday pp. 133-202 (en)
  3. John C.L.Gibson (1971) Textbook of Syrian Semitic Inscriptions. 1: Hebrew and Moabite Inscriptions Clarendon Press (en)
  4. André Lemaire (1977) Inscriptions hébraïques : tome I: Les ostraca. Introduction, traduction, commentaire Cerf (Fr)
  5. D. Pardee (1979) Literary Sources for the History of Palestine and Syria II: Hebrew, Moabite, Ammonite and Edomite Inscriptions in Andrews University Seminary Studies N. 17 pp. 47-70 (en)
  6. Yohanan Aharoni (1981) Arad Inscriptions Israel Exploration Society (en)
  7. Joseph Naveh (1982) Early History of the Alphabet. An Introduction to West Semitic Epigraphy and Palaeography Brill (EN)
  8. Dennis Pardee - Paul-Eugène Dion - David J. Whitehead (1982) Handbook of Ancient Hebrew Letters: a Study Edition Scholars Press (en)
  9. Yigael Yadin (1989) Masada : the Yigael Yadin excavations 1963-1965 : final reports 1: The Aramaic and Hebrew ostraca and jar inscriptions Israel Exploration society (en)
  10. Benjamin Sass (1991) Studia Alphabetica: On the Origin and Early History of the Northwest Semitic, South Semitic and Greek Alphabets Universitaetsverlag (en)
  11. G.I. Davies (1991) Ancient Hebrew Inscriptions Cambridge University Press (en)
  12. Benjamin Sass - Christoph Uehlinger (1993) Studies in the Iconography of Northwest Semitic Inscribed Seals: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Fribourg on April 17-20, 1991 University Press (en)
  13. Robert Deutsch - Michael Heltzer (1994) Forty new ancient West Semitic Inscriptions Archaeological Center Publications (en)
  14. Robert Deutsch (1995) New Epigraphic Evidence from the Biblical Period Archaeological Center Publications (en)
  15. Johannes Renz - Wolfgang Roellig (1995-2003) Handbuch der althebraeischen Epigraphik Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft (de)
  16. Nahman Avigad - Benjamin Sass (1997) Corpus of West Semitic Stamp Seals Institute of Archaeology, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (en)
  17. Sandra Landis Gogel (1998) A Grammar of Epigraphic Hebrew Scholars Press (en)
  18. Robert Deutsch (1999) Messages from the Past: Hebrew Bullae from the Time of Isaiah Through the Destruction of the First Temple Archaeological Center Publications (en)
  19. Robert Deutsch - Michael Heltzer - Gabriel Barkay (1999) West Semitic Epigraphic News of the 1st Millenium BCE Archaeological Center Publications (en)
  20. Robert Deutsch - Shlomo Moussaieff - André Lemaire (2000) Biblical Period Personal Seals in the Shlomo Moussaieff Collection Archaeological Center Publications (en)
  21. Yigael Yadin (2002) The documents from the Bar Kokhba period in the cave of letters : Hebrew, Aramaic and Nabatean-Aramaic papyri Israel Exploration Society (en)
  22. Régis Debray (2002) Dio, un itinerario : per una storia dell'Eterno in Occidente Raffaello Cortina (It)
  23. Ada Yardeni (2002) The Book of Hebrew Script: History, Palaeography, Script Styles, Calligraphy & Design The British Library (en)
  24. Robert Deutsch - André Lemaire (2003) The Adoniram Collection of West Semitic Inscriptions Archaeological Center Publications (en)
  25. Robert Deutsch (a cura di) (2003) Shlomo: Studies in Epigraphy, Iconography, History, and Archaeology in Honor of Shlomo Moussaieff Archaeological Center Publications (en)
  26. Robert Deutsch (2003) Biblical Period Hebrew Bullae: The Josef Chaim Kaufman Collection Archaeological Center Publications (en)
  27. F.W. Dobbs-Allsopp, J.J.M.Roberts, C.L.Seow, R.E.Whitaker (2004) Hebrew Inscriptions: Texts from the Biblical Period of the Monarchy with Concordance New Haven; London: Yale, 2004 (EN)
  28. F.W. Dobbs-Allsopp et al. (eds) (2005) Hebrew Inscriptions. Texts from the Biblical Period of the Monarchy with Concordance Yale University Press New Haven, CT, London (en)
  29. Benjamin Sass (2005) The Alphabet at the Turn of the Millennium: The West Semitic Alphabet Ca. 1150-850 BCE : the Antiquity of the Arabian, Greek and Phrygian Alphabets Tel Aviv (en)
  30. Colette Sirat (2006) Writing as Handwork: a History of Handwriting in Mediterranean and Western Culture Brepols (en)
  31. Giovanni Garbini (2006) Introduzione all'epigrafia semitica Paideia pp. 81-127 (IT)
  32. Joseph Naveh (2009) Studies in West-Semitic Epigraphy. Selected Papers Magnes Press (EN)
  33. B.A. Mastin (2009) The Inscriptions Written on Plaster at Kuntillet 'Ajrud in Vetus Testamentum N. 59 pp. 99-115 (en)
  34. H.M. Cotton - L. Di Segni - W. Eck - B. Isaac - A. Kushiv-Stern - H. Misgav - J.J. Price - I. Roll - A. Yardeni (2010) Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaeae / Palestinae. Volume 1: Jerusalem, Part 1: 1-704 DeGruyter (en)
  35. Ada Yardeni (2015) Understanding the Alphabet of the Dead Sea Scrolls Tyndale House Publishers (EN)
  36. Kenton L. Sparks (2017) Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, MI; "Hebrew inscriptions": pp. 449-463; 475-476 (EN)
  37. S.L. Sanders (2017) From Adapa to Enoch. Scribal Culture and Religious Vision in Judea and Babylon Mohr Siebeck, Tubingen (en)
  38. W. Schniedewind (2017) Scribal Education in Ancient Israel and Judah into the Persian Period in Second Temple Jewish Paideia in Context J. Zurawski - G. Boccaccini (eds), De Gruyter, Berlin pp. 11-28 (en)
  39. William M. Schniedewind (2019) The Finger of the Scribe. How Scribes learned to write the Bible Oxford University Press, (EN)
  40. C.L. Crouch, J.M. Hutton (2019) Translating Empire. Tell Fekheriyeh, Deuteronomy, and the Akkadian Treaty Tradition Mohr Siebeck, Tuebingen (EN)
  41. Reinhard G. Kratz – Paola Mollo (2020) Israele storico e biblico. Storia, tradizione, archivi G&BP (IT)
  42. (2020) Stone, Tablets, and Scrolls. Periods of the Formation of the Bible , ed. by P. Dubovský and F. Giuntoli, Mohr Siebeck, Tuebingen (EN)