Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- 7th/6th century BC - Current era

Online resources

Web sites of general interest

  1. CIL - Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
    Site of the most important project concerning Latin epigraphy, begun in the 1800s by Theodor Mommsen and still ongoing. Information about the plan, the development, and the contributors to the project are clearly provided. Volumes published up to 1940 are digitalized in the section Bände (through the Arachne database []). The Hilfsmittel section contains useful materials: online indices of vols. I2 2, 1-4 and XVII 4, 1, concordances between the original volumes and the most recent editions, addenda et corrigenda, diacritic convention used in the different volumes; a glossary with a German translation of the Latin expressions used by the editors of the CIL in the headwords of the individual inscriptions and a multilingual glossary (German, English, Italian) specific for the different types of stones.
  2. EAGLE – Europeana network of Ancient Greek and Latin Epigraphy
    The project “Europeana network of Ancient Greek and Latin Epigraphy” is the successor of AIGLE’s EAGLE (Electronic Archive of Greek and Latin Epigraphy). It is now the main network among European digital epigraphy collections. The search tool, which can take several parameters into account, can browse many databases at the same time and compare results. The website offers many other resources: dictionaries and vocabulary tools, bibliographies, digital exhibitions and a notice board.
  3. AIEGL - Association Internationale d'Epigraphie grecque et latine
    Site of the International Association of Greek and Latin Epigraphy. It offers a news section on conferences, publications, and more. The association organizes a congress every five years.
  4. SFER – Société française d’études épigraphiques sur Rome et le monde romain
    Website of the SFER. It provides information about the activities of the association. The “Ressources – Liens” section consists of an extensive and updated list of electronic resources for Greek and Latin epigraphy.
  5. ASGLE – American Society of Greek and Latin Epigraphy
    Site of the North American Association of Greek and Latin Epigraphy. It gathers news about conferences, seminars, summer schools, publications, job opportunities and scholarships.
  6. BES - British Epigraphy Society
    This website provides information about conferences, seminars, and summer schools organized by the British Epigraphy Society. Occasionally, it also offers scholarships for students that want to take part in the initiatives.
    This website offers a space for debate between several digital epigraphy projects. The main goal is to develop a series of shared strategies for data input, presentation and use. The Partners section gathers links to the numerous websites involved in this initiative.
  8. Current Epigraphy
    This website gathers news about Greek and Latin epigraphy: new discoveries, seminars, conferences, calls for papers, recent publications, scholarships, job opportunities.
  9. AIP - Association Internationale de Papyrologues
    Site of the international association of papyrology, it lists members and papyrology study centers in the world. The section with images, and in rare cases necrologies, of great past papyrologists, is a curiosity.
  10. ASP - The American Society of Papyrologists
    Official site of the American Society of Papyrology. Information about recent publications, seminars, and courses of interest for papyrologists.
  11. Paleographia
    Portal, edited by D. Muzerelle, that offers some useful digital tools for paleography (e. g. the codicological dictionary, see the specific entry in the section "Academic materials"). It also includes links to the main paleography associations (APICES – Association Paléographique internationale: culture – écriture – société; CIPL – Comité international de paléographie latine).

Online documents

  1. The Ancient Graffiti Project
    This website focuses on Greek and Latin graffiti from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Entries are based on an autoptic review and include a transcription with an English translation, rich bibliographic references and really good images as well. The data from this project are included in EDR. The database can be searched according to several criteria or browsed through an interactive map. This website also has a didactic section, containing teaching material aimed at schools.
  2. Inscriptions of Sicily
    This website gathers all the inscriptions from Sicily in Greek, Latin, but also in Oscan, Punic, Sican, etc. Each entry includes some detailed information, a transcription with a translation (in Italian and/or in English), a commentary and an image, when available. The database can also be browsed through a map.
  3. RIB – Roman Inscriptions of Britain
    RIB offers in a single database the digital version of several published collection of inscriptions from Roman Britain on stone and on tablets (Vindolanda, Bloomberg). Beside a search tool, the data can also be browsed by collection, place of origin, place found or held and by very detailed indexes. Each entry includes extensive information about the inscription, its edition, an English translation, a rich commentary, an image (a photo or a sketch) and some bibliographic references.
  4. Keltischer Götternamen in den Inschriften der römischen Provinz Germania Inferior
    This website gathers inscriptions, from the province of Germania Inferior, which contain names of Celtic gods. Each detailed entry offers a transcription with a German translation, a rich commentary, and fairly good quality images. The collection can be browsed through the map or by theonyms.
  5. HE – Hispania epigraphica
    This website gathers all the Latin inscriptions, both from Spain and Portugal. Each inscription has a detailed entry, with general information, references, a transcription (or more) with a Spanish translation, several notes and an image, when available.
  6. Epigraphica 3.0
    This project aims at developing a database of Latin inscriptions from the Ourense region. Each inscription has a very detailed entry that includes a transcription and a Spanish translation, a rich commentary, bibliographic references, high-resolution images and 3D models.
  7. Rus Africum
    This website presents the results of the excavation campaign organized by the University of Trento at Thugga (Tunisia). The inscriptions can be sorted according to different criteria (by CIL number, support, typology) and an interactive map of the archaeological sites is provided Entries are either based upon previous publications (CIL) or newly compiled through autoptic analysis. Some high quality images are also available.
  8. EpiCherchell
    Database containing inscriptions from Caesarea, Numidia (now called Cherchel, in Algeria). Each entry offers general information about the inscription and some images (mostly black and white), with a transcription, a French translation, and bibliographic references.
  9. IRT – Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania
    Digital edition of the collection of inscriptions from Tripolitania (mostly in Latin). Each entry provides general information, a transcription, an English translation, a black and white image, and annotations. The database can be sorted by several criteria (place, date, type). General overviews to the single sites are also available.
  10. MAMA – Monumenta Asiae Minoris Antiqua XI
    This website gathers Greek and Latin inscriptions from Phrygia and Lycaonia. Each detailed entry provides a transcription, an English translation, some images, a rich commentary, and bibliographic references.
  11. Epigraphik Datenbase zum antiken Kleinasien
    This project by the Hamburg University gathers Greek and Latin inscriptions from the whole region of Asia Minor (mostly from Lydia, Galatia, Paphlagonia, Phrygia, Proseilemmene, and Antioch of Pisidia). Each entry provides basic information about the inscription, a transcription and a bibliography but no image is available.
  12. Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine
    Collection of inscriptions from Israel and Palestine from 6th century BC to 7th century AD. Each entry provides basic information, a transcription and an English translation together with an image, when available. Queries can be performed using various parameters. The site also has a strong teaching focus so it presents brief scholarly essays on the ancient history of this region.
  13. Musisque Deoque – Carmina Latina Epigraphica
    Section of the best database for Latin poetry which gathers in a single collection the texts of the poetic inscription published in the Carmina Latina Epigraphica (Leipzig 1930) and in the other repertories that have appeared after the CLE. The texts can be browsed by publication corpus and incipit, and in the general search form for the portal.
    The project aims at creating a single portal for digital papyrology. It includes APIS, DDbDP, HGV, and BP (see the specific entries below) and is a partner of the Trismegistos portal. The data available in all the integrated resources are displayed for each papyrus. The project includes a section for the DCLP (Digital Corpus of Literary Papyri, also reachable as an independent website: that specifically deals with literary and para-literary papyri.
  15. HGV – Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der Griechischen Papyrusurkunden
    This website gathers data on the Greek and Latin documentary papyri published in the main editions (with a special attention to dating). Each entry points out the available images and reproductions and provides the text from the DDbDP. Data from HGV are included in the website
  16. DDbDP – Duke Database of Documentary Papyri
    The Duke Database of Documentary Papyri contains the texts of already published Greek and Latin documentary papyri and is a landmark for digital papyrology initiatives. This database is part of the project. The texts can be edited by the registered users of the portal through the Papyrological Editor: a list of emendations is drawn up every year in the “Bulletin of online emendations to papyri” by the Heidelberg University (
  17. APIS - Advanced Papyrological Information System
    This important database contains many and not only American papyri collections. Each papyrus has a detailed description, often an English translation, and an image. This database is included in the website.
  18. Roman provincial coinage
    A digital catalogue of the provincial coins from the Imperial period, held in different institutions. A detailed entry that includes some high-quality images is provided with each coin type.

Study and research centers

  1. Corpus of the Latin inscriptions in Spain (CIL II,2)
    This site is connected to the project of the republication of the second volume of the CIL in which the Latin inscriptions in Spain are collected. The study center is located near Madrid. Divided in the three administrative convents, it is possible to consult most of the epigraphic documentation of Spain, with texts (linked to EAGLE Heidelberg) and images (directly at the center). It is also possible to consult a certain number of online articles, all concerning the inscriptions in Spain.
  2. Kommission fuer alte Geschichte und Epigraphik, Munich
    The Kommission, one of the DAI divisions (Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut), has a number of projects ongoing in the field of epigraphy and, in part, of papyrology. For Latin, the republication of the Latin inscriptions from Spain (CIL II2), with the partnership of the University of Halcalà, is of note.
  3. IKAnt – Institut für Kulturgeschichte der Antike
    The ancient history and archeology department of the Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (OEAW) is a dynamic research center, with various projects focused on papyrology, epigraphy, and numismatics (section "Documenta antiqua").
  4. Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften
    Besides promoting the CIL, this research institution deals with many other digital projects: the Corpus Nummorum Online and the epigraphic search tool Ediarum are among those in progress in the field of Latin writing systems.
  5. Center for epigraphical and paleographical studies
    Website of the center for epigraphical and paleographical studies of the Ohio University. It contains a section with images of Greek and Latin inscriptions and Roman coins.
  6. CSAD - Center for the Study of Ancient Documents
    This center at Oxford has a number of ongoing projects on both Latin and Greek documents, which can be seen in the section "Online documents" (RIB) and "Academic materials" (LatinNow) or also in the specific entries in the Greek section. Particular attention is given to the material execution of writing. For the Latin, the focus is on documents found in Britain and in the development of innovative methodologies.
  7. Laboratorio di Epigrafia Latina (UniVe)
    This website describes the activities of the Laboratory, which focuses on sites in the regio X (in partnership with EDR and Supplementa Italica). It offers information about previous conferences and on-going projects and has a section containing useful links.
  8. Alte Geschichte und Altertumskunde Graz
    Portal of the Institute of Ancient History at the University of Graz. It contains several electronic resources: digital collections of epigraphy (squeezes) and ancient coins, together with a database on Celtic god names in Latin inscriptions from Germania Inferior (see "Museums and collections" section).
  9. Ductus
    Website of the association Ductus, focused on the study of shorter inscriptions, in particular graffiti and inscriptions on instrumenta. It offers some downloadable bibliographical resources.
  10. CEDOPAL – Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire
    Website of the papyrological research center at the Liège University. Besides providing news about the on-going activities and projects, it also provides access to the Mertens-Pack3 catalogue and other valuable bibliographic materials (see in the specific sections "Online Documents" and "Bibliography").
  11. POxy – Oxhyrhynchus Online
    Website of the papyrological research center at Oxford, particularly focuses on the Oxyrhynchus papyri (see the section "Images" to find images from this database).
  12. Institut de Papyrologie de la Sorbonne (Université de Paris IV)
    Center for papyrological research at the University of Paris IV. Besides Greek and Demotic collections, some high-resolution images of Latin papyri are also available.
  13. Institut für Papyrologie Heidelberg
    The papyrology institute at the Heidelberg University is among the leading centers for the development of digital resources. This website presents the on-going projects, offers a digital catalogue of the papyrological collection and also important digital tools (HGV, DCLP, Wörterlisten, Pappal, BOEP: see the individual entries respectively in the sections "Online documents", in in "Online documents", in "Academic materials", in "Images", in DDbDP in "Collection of texts and digital libraries").
  14. Accademia fiorentina di papirologia e studi sul mondo antico
    The website of the Accademia fiorentina di papirologia gathers information about its on-going projects and upcoming events. It also provides access to different electronic resources such as a number of Italian digital collections of papyri. One of the most interesting projects of the Accademia is the digitalization of the Heroninos ancient archive, that contains documents concerning the management of a Roman property in Egypt. The Notiziario di Antichistica is also worth noting: a rich monthly bulletin edited by Sergio Audano, with information about publications, conferences and events.
    The PLATINUM research group (Papyri and LAtin Texts: INsights and Updated Methodologies), led by M. C. Scappaticcio at the Federico II University of Naples, pursues an interdisciplinary approach (paleographical, philological, literary, historical) to Latin papyri. The goal of the project is the development of a new digital corpus with a rich commentary bringing together all the different methodological perspectives. Other interesting materials are the Marichal archive and a vast bibliography.

Academic materials

  1. Antiquitas - Epigraphie Latine
    Educational website about ancient history developed by the University of Fribourg. The Latin epigraphy section is edited by V. Dasen: it describes the main types of inscriptions and offers an overview of the history of Switzerland through the Roman Age. Two levels of interactive exercises are available which consist in a guided analysis of some inscriptions from Switzerland.
  2. Epigrafía latina
    Digital introduction to Latin epigraphy available in the Spanish portal ExtremaduraClásica. The website provides a short introduction to general themes (alphabet, numbers, writing systems, onomastics, cursus honorum) and describes the various types of inscriptions. Some simple exercises (“Actividades”) are also available.
  3. Inscripta
    Reading and translation exercises based on the Latin inscriptions of the Newcastle upon Tyne museum. Examples are sorted by thematic category and by difficulty. A brief commentary on the inscription is provided at the end of each exercise.
  4. LacusCurtius - Latin Inscriptions
    Offers a series of images of Latin and Etruscan inscriptions, complete with transcriptions. It presents three modules (simple, medium, hard) of inscriptions for which students should make a transcription (the solutions offered are not always correct).
  5. The Ashmolean Latin inscriptions project
    Didactic materials by the Ashmolean Museum. Samples of inscriptions are used as starting points for teaching some aspects of the Latin language and culture. The proposed activities are primarily designed for elementary and secondary school students.
  6. LatinNOW
    Website of the European project for the diffusion of Latin in North-Western provinces. It contains teaching material for primary and secondary schools focused on inscriptions from Britain (in particular the Vindolanda tablets and the defixiones).
  7. In Dialog mit der Antike
    Digital epigraphic collection of the Innsbruck University. The website has an educational aim: a description and a commentary are provided after every transcription (linked to a not always integral image) together with its German translation. The commentary contains links to some brief discussion of key themes in the inscription.
  8. Auxilia epigraphica ligustica
    Website that offers thematic pathways on the inscriptions from the regio IX (Liguria). Transcriptions are sorted by textual elements, formulas, dedicators, monument types, origin. Pathways about funerary, sacred and imperial inscriptions are currently available.
  9. Alpi Antiche
    This website, developed by the University of Trento, gathers some interesting inscriptions (together with other literary and archeological evidence), in order to sketch a brief summary of the Roman history in the Alpine region. Each entry presents an image, a transcription with the Italian translation, and some notes.
  10. Abbreviation list for the ASGLE website
    This website provides access to the abbreviation list for epigraphy by Tom Elliott (ISAW, New York), realized for the ASGLE. The repertory is drawn up according to the digital version of the Année Épigraphique (up to the 1993 issue).
  11. Papiri Michigan
    The website of the papyrological collection of the University of Michigan contains some useful teaching materials in the “online-exhibits” section, concerning the production process for papyrus, the writing techniques and support materials, as well as the deciphering of ancient writing systems (there are two examples for Latin: a book in half-uncial and a document in cursive script).
  12. Wörterlisten Heidelberg (ex Hinweise)
    Index of Greek and Latin terms drawn up from the indexes of the most recent editions of the documentary papyri from the mid-1990s on. The index can be browsed either by thematic categories or in a general alphabetic order.
  13. Steffens - Paléographie latine
    Online version of the well-known handbook of Latin paleography by F. Steffens (Trier 1909, French edition Paris 1910). The website provides high resolution images of the plates and their transcriptions with commentaries. The development of Latin writing is illustrated through manuscripts, epigraphs and papyri.
  14. Latin Paleography - Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana
    A digital paleography course by A. M. Piazzoni (vice-director at the Vatican Library). The development of the Latin writing system from the Antiquity to the Renaissance is outlined through more than 5000 manuscripts digitalized by the BAV, including some late-antique treasures. Each code can be marked interactively with the transcription and explanations of the abbreviations or peculiarities of the writing system.
  15. vHMML
    The website of the Hill Museum and Manuscript Library offers several electronic resources for the study of paleography. In the School section a very good general course is provided for the Latin paleography from classical and Christian Antiquity to the Renaissance, organized in three sections: detailed explanations, exercises and transcriptions (with high resolution images from the main digital collections of manuscripts and papyri). In the Folio section a number of annotated and transcribed examples are available. The Lexicon section provides a multilingual glossary of technical terms.
  16. Medieval Manuscripts in Dutch Collection
    Site providing a census of all Latin manuscripts up to 1550 present in Dutch libraries or collections. There is an introductory part on Latin paleography (rustic and square capital, uncial and semi uncial) that is clear and well-structured even if a little scant, with good images with transcriptions.
  17. Fernando de Lasala Latin paleography
    Latin paleography lecture notes by the Pontifical Gregorian University. The website provides a traditional synopsis of the development of the Latin writing system from Antiquity to the Renaissance, with some annotated examples.
  18. Vocabulaire codicologique
    This website is a digital version of the “Vocabulaire codicologique” by D. Muzerelle (Paris 1985). It offers a multilingual glossary (French, Italian, English, Spanish) of codicological technical terms.
  19. Prosopographia Imperii Romani
    This site is useful for epigraphic references to members of the Imperial family, nobles and senators (including also figures mentioned in literary works, the collection begins at about the Battle of Actium, 31 BC). In some cases there is only a reference to printed material, in other cases the information is complete.


  1. Ubi Erat Lupa
    This site collects four different sites, part of a project financed by the European Community for the divulgation of classical culture. The sites include Roman stone monuments (collection of about 12,000, all provided with a good image, even if the attention is for the monument as a whole and not only the inscription); Lupa Regional Info (digitalization of the collections of some museums in Germany, etc); Hispania epigraphica (about 22,000 inscriptions from Spain, about 1,600 of which are provided with images; the transcriptions are good and the information is clear and fairly complete; CRFB - Roman Finds in the European Barbaricum, prepared by the DAI and still being tested, it presents material coming from the so-called "Barbaricum".
  2. PapPal
    This website, supported by the University of Heildelberg, provides images of Greek and Latin dated papyri for paleographic analysis. Each entry contains basic information and links to high-resolution images. Images can be browsed by several different criteria such as provenance and date.
  3. Calchi Ohio
    Collection of squeezes of inscriptions from Greece, Italy, and Macedonia and photographs, contributed by the Center for Epigraphical and Palaeographical Studies at The Ohio State University.
  4. Progetto Ancyra
    Ce site, dirigé par l’Université de Trieste contient des images interactives en haute définition de l’inscription bilingue du Monumentum Ancyranum (Res gestae divi Augusti). On peut zoomer sur l’épigraphe afin d’en obtenir une vision plus ou moins détaillée, mais on peut également le visionner en suivant l’ordre des chapitres du texte. Les différents degrés de conservation des signes (lettres encore colorées, précises ou imprécises) sont indiqués par différentes couleurs.
  5. Replacing the squeeze?
    Page dedicated to the potentiality of 3D models in teaching epigraphy in the educational website by Sarah E. Bond with examples taken from Sketchfab (Fasti Praenestini, Res Gestae Divi Augusti). A 3D model of the Monumentum Ancyranum (based on squeezes) is also available at the Digital epigraphy toolbox (
  6. Epigraphia 3D
    3D models of inscriptions held at the Museo Arqueológico Nacional in Madrid and at the Museo Nacional de Arte Romano in Mérida. Each image is provided with a transcription and bibliographic references. Short didactic introductions to the main tools and themes of Latin epigraphy (with exercises in the section “Recursos”) are also available.
  7. Forma Urbis Romae
    This project of Stanford University focuses on the famous marble plan of Rome offering a database with pictures of all the available fragments, with accurate descriptions and commentaries.
  8. CLA Galway
    A digital edition of the Codices Latini Antiquiores by E. A. Lowe (Oxford, 1934-1966, with supplements and addenda) by Galway University. Each manuscript written before AD 800 (on papyrus or parchment) has a brief paleographic analysis with a black and white image and a link to the complete digitalization, when available. This catalogue can be browsed by writing system, place held, or date. Other catalogues with more specific focuses (e. g., manuscripts with the name of the scribe) are included.
  9. Estense digital library
    The website of the Estense library gives access to an OPEN catalogue which gathers digitalized manuscripts from several institutions (e. g. E-Codices, Vatican Library, Gallica).
    Roman Republic and Imperial era coins grouped in basis of the minter. Only images.
  11. CoinArchives
    Material sold in recent auctions. It is possible to search for coins based on the legend or other key words. Every coin is provided with useful information and good-quality images, transcription and brief description.
  12. Ancient Coins: Roman, Greek, Byzantine and Celtic Numismatic Reference for Attribuition and Valuation
    Collection of ancient coins for evaluation and sales. The Roman coins are grouped by family name, minter and emperor. Each is provided with an excellent image and a description with a transcription of the legend.
  13. Marc Breitspecher
    Personal site for numismatic estimation. For each coin a high-resolution picture and a transcription of the legend are provided.
  14. Virtual catalogue of Roman coins
    Digital catalogue of coins. Each entry provides an image and the transcription of the legend.
  15. NBE – Numismatiche Bilddatenbank Eichstätt
    Database with images of Roman coins with a brief description. An index of the words contained in legends is provided.
  16. Roman Military Diploma Museum
    Excellent collection of images of military diplomas, ordered both chronologically and geographically. There is a section on possible fakes.


  1. Attalus
    Site with English translations of some inscriptions from the CIL based on texts in the EDCS.

Museums and collections

  1. The Ashmolean Latin Inscriptions Project
    Excellent instrument for becoming acquainted with Latin inscriptions. Around 420 inscriptions in Latin language kept in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, are online and catalogued and can be browsed by topic (professions, religions, slaves and so on). Each inscription record presents a physical description, the content, the text and translation together with a picture (often also an RTI image).
  2. Squeezes - Graz
    This is a really detailed digital catalogue for the rich collection of squeezes of the Latin epigraphs at the Graz University (mostly from Noricum, Pannonia and Dalmatia, but also from Italy and Rome). Together with general information and references, each entry offers a transcription, a German translation, a commentary, and a high-resolution image. Several search criteria are available (e. g., by type or language) and results can be displayed on a map.
  3. Testimonia Epigraphica Norica
    This website gathers all the inscriptions from Noricum (current Austria). Each entry includes basic information and a transcription of the epigraph, but no image. An index of words is provided but there is no research interface. In the LAPIDEL section it is possible to browse some Austrian collections of inscriptions (Graz, Seggauberg, Wien – Österreichische Nationalbibliothek).
  4. US Epigraphy Project
    This site gathers all Greek and Latin inscriptions present in collections in the US in an online resource. The project is ongoing, but many images (or at least a description of the piece) have been added, in some cases accompanied by a transcription.
  5. Dvctvs
    This website offers the digital catalogues of three important Spanish collections: Monserrat Abbey, Palau-Ribes, and Pastor. Among the few Latin papyri, the famous papyrus codex of the Alcestis Barcinonensis (P. Mons. Roca inv. 158+159+160+161) stands out. Each entry provides general information, bibliographic references and an image, when available.
  6. PSI online
    The Papyri of the Italian Society (PSI), held at different institutions, together with other collections (PPad, PLaur, PFlor, PPrag) are gathered in this digital collection. Each detailed entry provides a bibliography and some images with good resolution. The literary papyri at the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana have been filed in an independent project by the Accademia Fiorentina di Papirologia ( images and descriptions are not the same as in PSIonline).
  7. Herculaneum papyri
    This website offers a digital catalogue of Herculaneum papyri. The so-called Carmen de bello Actiaco (P. Herc. 817) is particularly noteworthy among the Latin papyri. Each entry provides some basic information, bibliographic references (sometimes available for download), and a black and white image.
  8. Berliner Papyrusdatenbank
    The Berlin collection contains several Latin papyri, with an accurate description, rich annotations, a bibliography and high-quality images.
  9. Die Papyrus-Sammlung in Köln
    This website provides high-quality images of papyri from the Cologne collection, with basic information. A link is provided to the texts available in The Latin papyri are not many.
  10. Heidelberger Papyrussammlung
    An excellent digital catalogue for the Heidelberg papyri, with basic information and high-quality images.
  11. Das Papyrus-Projekt Halle-Jena-Leipzig
    This project, promoted by the Leipzig University, gathers the papyri collections from many European universities, especially German (Basel, Bonn, Bremen, Budapest, Erlangen, Freiburg, Gießen, Halle, Hamburg, Jena, Köln, Leipzig, Marburg, Torgau, Würzburg). Each entry offers a detailed description and good resolution images.
  12. Rylands papyri
    The Rylands collection at the University of Manchester contains several important Latin papyri. This digital collection offers a detailed entry for each, with general information, a description and a high-resolution image.
  13. Oxford papyri
    This website gathers data and images from the Oxford papyri collections: Antinoupolis, Herculaneum (transcriptions of the 19th century), Oxyrhynchus and magical papyri.
  14. Michigan Papyri
    The University of Michigan collections include several Latin papyri, especially documentary. This digital catalogue provides entries with detailed information, an English translation (for the longer papyri only), bibliographical references, and high-quality images.
  15. Descriptive Inventory of Princeton Papyri
    Description (physical characteristics, number of lines, etc.) of the papyri of the University of Princeton collection. A link to an online image from the Princeton University Library website is provided, when available.
  16. The Hawara Papyri
    Images and indications of papyri coming from the digs of Hawara carried out by W. Petrie. There is the famous PHaw 24 with writing exercises of verses including Virgil (Aen. 2, 601 e 4, 174), in elegant cursive writing.
  17. Duke Papyrus Archive (Latin)
    The Latin part of this collection is very small. Each is completed with a photo (72 or 150 dpi) and essential information. The paleographic aspect is not taken into consideration. Among the pieces there is a fragment of Cicero In Catilinam, 1, 13-15.
  18. Tebtunis papyri
    The collection of papyri at Berkeley has a good digital catalogue, with detailed descriptions and good images. P. Tebtunis 686 is remarkable among the few Latin papyri: it is a writing exercise based on the first lines of the Georgics by Vergil.
  19. Schoyen Collection
    The Schøyen (from the name of the collector) Collection contains a good quantity of ancient material, including inscriptions on bronze and papyri (the interest is especially paleographic). The Palaeography and Papyri (no Latin papyri, though) collections are the most interesting in our opinion. There are excellent images of the pieces and well-prepared information, with a full description of the object (without, however, transcription of the text). The material is organized chronologically within each collection.
  20. Münzkabinett Berlin
    Digital catalogue of the Berlin numismatic collection (with medieval and modern coins as well). Each entry provides detailed information, the transcription of the legend, a bibliography, and a high-resolution image.
  21. American Numismatic Society
    Digitalization of the material from this society; every coin is provided with a description, transcription of the text, bibliography and high-quality images.
  22. Perseus coins
    Greek and Roman coins from three North American collections (Dewing, Bowdoin College and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston), with transcription, description and good images.

Collections of texts and digital libraries

  1. EDCS - Epigraphische Datenbank Clauss-Slaby
    The largest online collection of Latin inscriptions (more than 500,000). The project was developed by M. Clauss with the cooperation of C. Slaby. Each entry has basic information and a transcription. An image is sometimes available and in many cases, links to other online databases (especially from the EAGLE network) are provided.
  2. EDH – Epigraphic database Heidelberg
    The EDH is a founding member of the EAGLE network together with EDR and EDB. Its task is the digitalization of Latin inscriptions from the provinces. Each inscription has a detailed entry, with general information, a transcription, an image (when available), bibliographical references and links. The inscriptions can be searched or browsed by geographical provenance, date or type.
  3. EDR - Epigraphic Database Roma
    Site created by S. Panciera and based at the University of Rome La Sapienza. It is a founding member of the EAGLE network. Contains epigraphic material from Rome (except Christian resources), from the Italian peninsula, Sicily and Sardinia. Research is possible using various parameters, as in the EDH. Information includes not only a transcription but also concordances among the various editions and with the AE. The lemmas and detailed indications are in Latin.
  4. EDB - Epigraphic Database Bari
    The Epigraphic database Bari is a founding member of the EAGLE network focused on the Christian inscriptions from Rome. It updates and expands the items from the ICUR (Inscriptiones Christianae Urbis Romae). Each entry has basic information and a transcription. An image is provided when available (often from the archive of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology).
    The PETRAE project by the Ausonius Institute (University of Bordeaux) is an online database of inscriptions from different regions: Numidia (in particular Dougga), Gaul (Aquitania, and more), Hispania, Northern Ponto, Thrace/Moesia/Dacia. Each entry offers some very detailed information, bibliographic references, a transcription, a French translation, several notes, and an image.
  6. Epigraphica Romana
    This website gathers recently discovered or revised Greek and Latin inscriptions. General information, a transcription, a commentary, and a bibliography (including links to other databases) are provided for each inscription.
  7. EDF – Epigraphic database Falsae
    This database, realized by the Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, gathers different types of fake inscriptions: stone or paper copies of genuine inscriptions, interpolated copies, modern inscriptions, forgeries. Each inscription has a detailed entry, with a transcription and an image (of the stone or manuscript), when available.
  8. Archivum corporis electronicum – Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
    Archivum corporis electronicum – Online database of the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum with concordances, images, squeezes, and bibliographic information.
  9. Trismegistos
    This portal was originally created to study plurilingualism and multiculturalism in ancient Egypt and expanded widely including inscriptions and papyri written between 800 BC and 800 AD in different languages from all over the ancient world. This platform gathers a large amount of data from different sources (LDAB, among others). Each entry provides basic information, the reference bibliography and links to other websites with its transcriptions and images. The site also includes a wide variety of search tools to browse the material: by languages or writing system, by characters or places mentioned, by authors, by publishers, by modern collection and more.
  10. LDAB – Leuven Database of Ancient Books
    This website gathers data about all the literary texts written in the ancient world (not only in Greek or in Latin) before 800 AD, on papyrus or on parchment, in a scroll or in a codex. The focus is on the codicological aspects, rather than on the texts. Many different search options are available. The database is part of the Trismegistos portal.
  11. Mertens – Pack3
    A search tool for the Mertens-Pack3 catalogue of literary papyri. Each entry provides basic information about the inscription (dimensions, origin, place held, editions, and bibliography) and links to other websites containing its images.
  12. Organa Papyrologica
    Search engine to query most of the digitalized papyrological databases in Germany. The website was created by the same partnership of the Papyrus-Project of Leipzig (see below). However, the listed collections do not match perfectly (collections from Berlin, Heidelberg, and Trier, which are not available in the Papyrus-Project, are included here, whereas those from Basel, Budapest, and Freiburg, which joined the Papyrus-Project after the realization of this search tool, are not covered).


  1. Theodor Mommsen - Biography
    Short biographic note for T. Mommsen in the site of the Nobel Foundation (Mommsen won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1902).
  2. Theodor Mommsen
    Full biography and information about the work of T. Mommsen on the website of his city of birth (Garding)
  3. Catholic Encyclopedia: Jean Mabillon
    Benedictine monk of the Congregation of Saint-Maur (1632-1707)


  1. Guide de l’épigraphiste
    The Guide de l’épigraphiste (4th edition, Paris 2010) is a bibliographical handbook which describes the main paper and digital resources for Greek and Latin and more. The website of the École normale supérieure provides annual updates and keeps a list of links to interesting digital resources constantly updated.
  2. EDH Bibliography
    The EDH database has a large bibliographic repertory devoted to epigraphy.
  3. ZPE – Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik
    The website of this important journal provides open access to full indexes and to several issues (1988-2000). Access to the complete collection is available under subscriptions at JSTOR.
  4. Tyche
    The website of this Austrian journal, dedicated to ancient history, papyrology, and epigraphy, provides open access to all issues.
  5. Checklist of Editions of Greek, Latin, Demotic, and Coptic Papyri, Ostraca and Tablets
    The primary purpose of the Checklist of Greek, Latin, Demotic and Coptic Papyri, Ostraca and Tablets is to provide for scholars a ready bibliography of all monographic volumes, both current and out-of-print, of Greek, Latin, Demotic and Coptic documentary texts on papyrus, parchment, ostraca or wood tablets. Texts published in periodicals as journal articles are mainly excluded.
  6. BP – Bibliographie papyrologique en ligne
    This website provides access to the rich repertory edited by M. Hombert in 1932 and constantly updated since then. It contains references to all the publications concerning papyrology. Each entry has an abstract or an index and a link to the digital reference when available. The Bibliographie papyrologique en ligne is available also at, but it is updated only up to 2012.
    The website of the papyrological research center of Liège University contains several thematic bibliographies (genres, authors), one and a specific bibliography about ancient books.
  8. J. Poucet. Les études classiques sur la Toile
    Annotated bibliography of online resources for the study of classic antiquity. It was last reviewed in 2009 so it is aged but not obsolete.
  9. Bibliotheca Classica Selecta
    This website, edited by J. Poucet with the collaboration of J. M. Hannick and P.-A. Deproost, contains a large and well-organized bibliography of paper and digital resources for the study of antiquity.
  10. AE – Année Épigraphique
    This page briefly describes the most important journal for Greek and Latin epigraphy. The Année Épigraphique is available by subscription at JSTOR (issues 1889-2014) and (issues 2010-).
  11. Gnomon
    The journal Gnomon has developed a large bibliographic open access database for classical studies.
  12. APh – Année Philologique
    The most important bibliography for classical studies is available by subscription at Brepolis.
  13. Scripta
    This journal of codicology and paleography has several interesting articles focused on the ancient world. It is available by subscription at LIBRAweb.
  14. ILS
    The database provides open access to all the volumes of Inscriptiones Latinae Selectae (ILS) by H. Dessau (Berlin 1896-1912).
  15. Cappelli
    The database provides open access to the third edition of the “Dizionario di abbreviature” (Milan 1929) by A. Cappelli. This is the standard repertoire not only for medieval abbreviations, but also for ancient epigraphic sigla and for the numeral system.