Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- (3rd millennium BC - Roman era)

Online resources

Web sites of general interest

  1. Unfortunately there are not sites created by scholars, or by Egyptology institutions, dedicated specifically to Hieratic. There are some introductory pages dedicated to the topic in sites more specifically dedicated to Egyptian civilization in general (,

Institutions, centers for study and research

  1. Il Libro dei Morti dell'Antico Egitto - Ägyptologie, Universität Bonn

Academic materials

  1. Basic lessons in Hieratic
    Five paleographic lessons to begin, ed. by Stephen Fryer, self-taught expert. The lessons are divided into : 1. "alphabetic" signs; 2. most common determinatives; 3. most common bi- and triliterals; 4. ligatures; 5. numbers.


  1. The Digital Library of Inscriptions and Calligraphies - Bibliotheca Alexandrina


  1. MÖLLER G., Hieratische paläographie, Leipzig 1909-1936

  2. VAN HEEL K.D., GOLVERDINGEN J., An Abnormal Hieratic Reading Book 1

  3. VAN HEEL K.D., GOLVERDINGEN J., An Abnormal Hieratic Reading Book 2

  4. MÖLLER G., Hieratische Lesestücke für den akademischen Gebrauch

  5. Il Papiro Bremner-Rhind

  6. Il Papiro Harris I

  7. L'Oasita eloquente

  8. Storie in Medio Egiziano

  9. Letteratura in Neo Egiziano

  10. La saggezza di Ani

  11. Lettere tardo-ramessidi

  12. Miscellanee in Neo Egiziano


  1. There are no hieratic fonts: photographs of originals are used for publication; moreover, Hieratic has traditionally been published in Hieroglyphic transcription.

Museums and collections

  1. DVCTVS - [Spanish] National Papyrological Funds

  2. Papyrus und Ostraka Projekt: Halle, Jena, Leipzig

  3. Papyrus Portal

Collections of texts and digital libraries

  1. Trismegistos
    An interdisciplinary portal of papyrological and epigraphical resources dealing with Egypt and the Nile valley between roughly 800 BC and AD 800. There are very rich databases of metadata on papyrus and parchment.
  2. Hieroglyphic and Hieratic Papyri (HHP)
    Hieroglyphic and Hieratic Papyri (HHP) is an online database of metadata. Its aim is to provide information about all published (and semi-published) as well as some unpublished texts written in these two scripts (excluding Abnormal Hieratic), currently some 1520 items.
  3. Deir el-Medina Database
    The Deir el-Medina Database is a search tool enabling the user to retrieve the documents relevant to his/her research activities from the corpus of non-literary texts from Deir el-Medina. The database presents ostraca, papiry and weights in hieratic. It has been developed by Leiden University, under the supervision of J.F. Borghouts.
  4. Digital Egypt for Universities
    Excellent site from the University College of London and Petrie Museum, and edited by Stephen Quirke, director of the museum. At this link users can find the Abusir Papyri and the ostraca of Deir el-Medina (photographs of the original and translation).
  5. Deir el Medine Online - Ostraca non letterari da Deir el-Medina (Institut für Ägyptologie München)

  6. The Ramesseum Papyri - The British Museum