Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources

Greek alphabets

- 8th century BC - Current era

Online resources

Web sites of general interest

  1. SEG online [e]
    The Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, one of the most important collections of printed inscriptions, offers new materials as well as commentaries and new editions of previously published inscriptions. Moreover, it presents a periodically updated overview of recent studies of known inscriptions. By purchasing access to Brill Online Reference Works, it is possible to use several powerful search tools. The website also provides a list of the bibliographical abbreviations used in the SEG (Abbreviations and Bibliography), a brief history of the SEG (A short story of the SEG), the diacritics employed (Note on Transcriptions), a list of the volume editors with reference to the location and the year of publication (Volume editors). The website also offers indexes arranged by categories. A browser is also available which allows the user to have access to the different entries of the SEG.
    Site of Poinikastas – Epigraphic Sources for Early Greek Writing hosted by the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents of Oxford. The website includes, in digitalized form, the considerable archive (sketches, notes and photographs) left by L.H Jeffery. A section entitled “Search and Browse Inscriptions” is also available, which allows the user to conduct research within the documents according to various criteria. The possibility to search by letter form is remarkable; by clicking on the glyph in the table you can have access to the collection of the epigraphic texts where that sign is attested. The files include photographs of the epigraphs and the digitised documents of the archive, a brief description of the epigraph with palaeographic observations, transcriptions and translation of the text, the reference to the edition in LSAG, provenance, type of object and bibliographic references.
  3. Italian website on Greek epigraphy
    This web page aims at enhancing the collaboration between students of epigraphy, providing them with information about conferences and links to relevant on-line tools.
  4. EAGLE – Europeana network of Ancient Greek and Latin Epigraphy [e]
    The Europeana network of Ancient Greek and Latin Epigraphy is a European-wide project which has taken up the legacy of EAGLE and now constitutes the main network among most of the European collections of digital epigraphy. The EAGLE Best Practice Network is part of Europeana, an online multi-lingual collection of millions of digitized items from European museums, libraries, archives and multimedia collections. EAGLE connects, in a single easily accessible database, more than 1.5 million items, scattered in 25 EU countries and along the east and south coasts of the Mediterranean. The project intends to make most of the surviving inscriptions of the Greco-Roman world available online, accompanied by essential information and an English translation of the epigraphic text. The Search function takes into account various criteria and provides results divided into three categories of items (texts, images and artifacts). The results include essential information about the research object (content provider, type of material and artefact, dating, findspot and current location) as well as, if available, an English translation and references to Trismegistos with bibliographic indications. The site also contains many other resources, such as lexical tools and dictionaries, bibliographies, digital museum itineraries and a section dedicated to news and events. The technology supporting the EAGLE project is suited to ensure the user the most intuitive experience possible. The services also include a mobile application, which allows tourists, by scanning or photographing the inscription with their smartphone, to read and understand the text of the epigraph as well as to have access to a series of more specific information concerning the inscription, and a story-telling platform, allowing teachers and experts to give life to narrative texts on the basis of epigraphs. A multilingual Wiki will also be created for the enrichment and enhancement of texts and images, which will then represent the basis for the future translation of the inscriptions in European languages other than English. The result of the EAGLE project will be disseminated as widely as possible both among the school community and among the wider public. To this end, EAGLE also intends to publish its Wikimedia Commons and at the same time to develop an inscriptions-themed documentary with a related teaser video. EAGLE will work within Europeana and in collaboration with related projects to ensure full and effective integration and make European culture globally available.
  5. Current Epigraphy [e]
    "Current Epigraphy" reports news about conferences, workshops and publications concerning Greek and Latin epigraphy.
  6. Greek epigraphic society / ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΗ ΕΠΙΓΡΑΦΙΚΗ ΕΤΑΙΡΕΙΑ [e]
    Official site of the Greek Epigraphy Society, a non-profit organisation founded in Athens in 1985, whose purpose is to encourage the study of ancient Greek epigraphy in collaboration with various institutions, foundations, and museums such as the Archaeological Society at Athens, the National Research Foundation, the Epigraphic Museum of Athens, and the Greek Archaeological Service of the Greek Ministry of Culture. The site presents a section gathering catalogues of inscriptions, a bulletin reporting news concerning the discovery of new epigraphic documents, areas dedicated to notices of events and publications, including those referring to two journals of the Greek Epigraphic Society, HOPOΣ Journal and ΓΡΑΜΜΑΤΕΙΟΝ e-Journal. It is also possible to have access to the website Greek Inscriptions Online, an ongoing project undertaken by the Greek Epigraphic Society in collaboration with the Hellenic Education & Research Center (HERC) and the Attic Inscriptions Online (AIO), aimed at the creation of a database for making ancient Greek inscriptions accessible for modern Greek speakers. The website also displays a list of sites concerning epigraphic and archaeological research.
  7. The American Society of Papyrologists [p]
    Website of the American Society of Papyrologists, founded in 1961 and aimed at enhancing papyrological studies. Besides the information regarding the Society, its members, the sponsored activities and links to papyrological sources, the website offers a preview of papers in the Bulletin of the American Society of Papyrologists.
  8. Association Internationale de Papyrologues [p]
    The Association Internationale de Papyrologues, founded in Paris in 1949, is one of the main organizations which promote collaboration among papyrologists of different countries. The website offers a short history of the association, emphasizing the conditions which led to its foundation, a description of its statute and a list of members.. Furthermore one will find information about its most significant historical figures; indications about papyrological centres connected with the Association and about locations and dates of the international congresses of papyrology, which it coordinates. It is also a member of the Federation International d’Etudes Classiques (FIEC).
  9. The British Epigraphy Society [e]
    Website of the British Epigraphy Society, an association founded in 1996 with the aim of promoting the study of inscriptions, texts and historical documents in Greek, Latin and other languages.
  10. AIEGL – Association Internationale d’Épigraphie Grecque et Latine [e]
    Site of the AIEGL-- Association Internationale d’Épigraphie Grecque et Latine, an association founded in 1977 to encourage the study of epigraphy. Every five years the organisation sponsors the International Epigraphic Congress and other academic events.
  11. ASGLE - The American Society of Greek and Latin Epigraphy [e]
    ASGLE, The American Society of Greek and Latin Epigraphy, is a non-profit organisation with the aim of promoting the research and the teaching of Greek and Latin epigraphy in North America.
  12. [e] is an international community for the development of digital epigraphy and the application of digital humanities to the study of ancient epigraphic texts.
  13. Encode
    Encode is an international project promoted by the Department of History, Culture and Civilisation of the University of Bologna involving various institutes, such as the Hamburg University, the Leuven University, the Oslo University, and the Würzburg University. Aim of the project is the application of the Digital Humanities to the disciplines dealing with ancient written documents (epigraphy, papyrology and palaeography). The project involves the planning of conferences and information workshops with the aim of promoting the development of skills for the application of digital tools to ancient documents. Encode collaborates with the international project Epidoc, providing tools and guidance for the digitisation of ancient documents (

Online documents

    Website focused on papyri, whose search engine (Papyrological Navigator), allows access to texts from various collections.The site combines the data from different databases: Advanced Papyrological Information System (APIS), the Duke Databank of Documentary Papyri (DDbDP), Bibliographie Papirologique (BP), Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis der griechischen Papyrusurkunden Ägyptens (HGV) and Trismegistos. A specific section of the site allows the user to carry out a search by key-words. It is also available a free-software based application, the Papyrological Editor: a useful tool for editing papyri and filling lacunas.
  2. Inscriptions from Aphrodisia
    The website collects the digitized corpus of the inscriptions from Aphrodisias, grouped according to geographic and content criteria. The epigraphic documents are edited with translation and commentary (by Joyce Reynolds, Charlotte Roueché and Gabriel Bodard) accompanied by photographic reproductions. On the website it is also possible to consult indexes of concordances. In the section Search the users can carry out specific searches on the basis of different criteria (content, textual, chronological or material).
  3. Cretan Institutional Inscriptions [e]
    Cretan Institutional Inscriptions, a database containing epigraphic documents pertaining to the political history of Crete from the most ancient attestations (VII century BC) to the Roman conquest of the island (67 BC). Each edition presents an essential descriptive lemma, a bibliographic lemma, the Greek text, a critical apparatus, and a commentary referring to the institutional aspects of the island. The database also presents some auxiliary sections, including a collection of information about Cretan political realities and institutions, literary texts relating to Cretan institutions and thematic indexes.
  4. Laconia Survey Inscriptions [e]
    Website of the project Laconia Survey, collecting the results of the excavations conducted in the ‘80s in Laconia by the British School of Athens in collaboration with the University of Athens and the Nottingham University. The site also presents the photographs of some of the epigraphs discovered during the excavations, accompanied by a brief description and followed by Greek text and translation.
  5. Inscriptiones Graecae [e]
    The website, sponsored by the Berlin-Branderburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften, contains a short history of the Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum (Überblick), a description of its organization (Publikationen), useful indexes to navigate the collection (Abklatsche) and a list of recent and forthcoming publications (Forschung aktuelle). Some epigraphical texts are accessible online through the menu item Ubersetzungen und Texte. Among the tools available on the website there are also concordances and further references, such as a list of squeezes preserved in the Accademia archive and a concordance between the different editions of the IG and the Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum. A section is moreover available (Suche), which enables the users to browse more specific information among the digitized inscriptions, based on the type of material as well as on geographical and lexical criteria.
  6. Inscriptions of Greek Cyrenaica Greek Verse Inscriptions of Cyrenaica [e]
    Online publication of two Corpora of inscriptions: the inscriptions from Greek Cyrenaic (IGCyr) and the Greek metric inscriptions from Cyrenaic (GVCyr). The site presents general information about the project, the history of studies of the inscriptions from Cyrenaic and the history of the region. The inscriptions are classified by number and title, text type, type of support, dating, places of origin and discovery and current location. A distinct section is dedicated to unpublished inscriptions. The epigraphic documents are accompanied by photographic reproductions, a brief commentary and a translation in Italian, French, English and Arabic.
  7. Dodona online [e]
    Website of the ongoing project Dodona Online (DOL), aimed at the online publication of a new edition of the lamellae from the oracle of Dodona. The project entails the future publication of the entire corpus.
  8. P.E.T.R.A.E. [e]
    In-progress database P.E.T.R.A.E., curated by the AUSONIUS Institute, which gathers Greek and Latin epigraphic texts from different regions.
  9. IOSPE - Ancient Inscriptions of the Northern Black Sea. [e]
    IOSPE (Inscriptiones antiquae Orae Septentrionalis Ponti Euxini graecae et latinae), the third online edition of the Corpus of inscriptions from the North coast of the Black Sea.
  10. EDAK--Epigraphische Datenbank zum antiken Kleinasien. [e]
    In-progress database edited by the Hamburg University and concerning Greek and Latin inscriptions from Asia Minor.
  11. IRT - Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania [e]
    Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania (IRT), a website hosting the digital edition (according to the Epidoc standard) of the inscriptions edited on paper in The Inscriptions of Roman Tripolitania, ed. by J. M. Reynolds and J. B. Ward Perkins (Roma 1952), including also digital maps and a search engine.
  12. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik
    Webpage of the online version of the journal Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik.
  13. Epigraphica [e]
    Website of the international journal of epigraphy Epigraphica, which is published annually in print (ed. F.lli Lega Editori di Faenza). Information on the activities promoted by the journal can be found in the section 'News'.
  14. Kadmos. Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik [e]
    Webpage of Kadmos. Zeitschrift für vor- und frühgriechische Epigraphik. The journal publishes articles on pre-Greek and early Greek epigraphy, i.e. concerning inscriptions of all the Mediterranean area dating back to the period before or immediately after the diffusion of the Greek language.
  15. Epigraphica anatolica. Zeitschrift für Epigraphik und historische Geographie Anatoliens [e]
    Webpage of the journal Epigraphica anatolica. Zeitschrift für Epigraphik und historische Geographie Anatoliens. It hosts articles on history and geography of the Anatolian territory. Articles in pdf from the volumes 35 (2002) to 50 (2017) can be downloaded in the 'Downloads" section.
  16. PSI online [p]
    Online catalog of the PSI - Papiri della Società Italiana-- and of P. Laur. - Papiri della Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana. The project is the result of cooperation agreements between various Italian and foreign institutions: the Universities of Bologna, Cassino, Messina, Naples and Padua, the Accademia Fiorentina di Papirologia, the Istituto Papirologico Vitelli - University of Florence, the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. It is currently supervised by the Centro Editoriale e dal Laboratorio di Ricerche Storiche e Archeologiche dell’Antichità (Dipartimento di Scienze Umane, Sociali e della Salute) of the University di Cassino. The section Ricerca allows the user to search among the papyri in the collection on the basis of various criteria (edition, place of origin, place of conservation, material, content, type, free text, start date / end date). Through the site it is currently possible to consult descriptive cards and reproductions of all the Greek and Latin papyri, parchments and ostraka belonging to the PSI series. Subsequently, the cards and images relating to the collections of the Papiri Fiorentini (P. Flor.), of the papyri of the Istituto Vitelli published outside the official series of PSI (PSI inv.) and of the Papiri di Praga (P. Prag.) will be published online. Furthermore, further IT tools of papyrological interest are being developed, such as the Greek Literary Hands of the Roman Period database, the result of a collaboration between the University of Cassino and the Center for the Study of Ancient Documents, or the IT guide to prosopography of Arsinoite, designed by the University of Padua and King's College London. The cards include material information on the artifact as well as high resolution photographic reproductions and bibliographic information and links to Trismegistos and LDAB
  17. Les Inscriptions de Thespies [e]
    The project Les Inscriptions de Thespies is promoted by the HiSoMA laboratory with the aim of continuing the work begun by Paul Roesch on the corpus of inscriptions of the Boeotian city of Thespis. The corpus contains just over 1400 epigraphs and is one of the richest in Boeotia. During his years of work, Roesch had assembled a huge amount of material, such as photographs and prints, and had drafted the critical texts and apparatus, preparing a translation and commentary on the various epigraphs of the corpus. Three of his colleagues, Gilbert ARGOUD (Professor Emeritus at the Université Jean-Monnet de Saint-Étienne), Albert SCHACHTER (Professor Emeritus at the Université McGill in Montréal) and Guy VOTTÉRO (Professor at the Université de Nancy 2) took up the work interrupted by Roesch's death. The online inscriptions are divided into 12 fascicles (available for download in pdf format) and are accompanied by a volume of concordances also containing a list of unpublished texts and re-employed monuments.
  18. Inscriptions of Israel/Palestine [e]
    The Inscriptions of Israel / Palestine (IIP) is a project promoted by Brown University, whose purpose is to collect and make freely accessible the published inscriptions (with English translations) of Israel and Palestine. The project collects more than 10,000 inscriptions, dating from the Persian Empire to the Arab conquest (ca. 500 BC - 640 AD), written in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin. Entries are encoded according to Epidoc guidelines. The data relating to the inscriptions is also accessible via the EAGLE portal. The project collaborates with other online sites such as Pelagios, Trismegistos, and the Portal of Epigraphy, Archaeology, Conservation, and Education on Jewish Funerary Culture (PEACE). Each inscription is accompanied by four parts: 1) header, which contains a description and other data relating to the inscription such as type of inscription and material, date, place of discovery and current location, gender and "religion", size and links to images 2) diplomatic transcription 3) edition 4) English translation. The site also provides some bibliographic information.
  19. ISicily [e]
    ISicily is a project aimed at making the accessible online the complete corpus of inscriptions from ancient Sicily. The corpus collects inscriptions in all languages (Greek, Latin, Punic, Oscan, Hebrew and Sikel) from the first written texts of the Archaic period (7th -6th century BC) up to late antiquity (7th century AD circa). The inscriptions are accompanied by a transcription, an edition and an English translation with a brief commentary. The project uses TEI-XML mark-up, according to EpiDoc indications. The aim of the project is to provide a complete autopsy of the collected epigraphs; the autopsy work is done in collaboration with museums and archaeological sites in Sicily, such as the Museo Archeologico regionale Paolo Orsi in Syracuse and the Museo Civico Castello Ursino of Catania. The project is also managing the complete and accurate photographic reproductions of the epigraphs preserved in the various museums of Sicily. A database has also been created collecting all the archaeological sites accessible in Sicily and a web page is available for each museum, linked to the epigraphic data, with the aim of allowing users to see which inscriptions are kept in a given museum and to carry out specific research on the basis of the different collections. The site also allows you to search for epigraphs via a google Earth map and provides some bibliographic information in the Bibliography section.
  20. Inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie [e]
    The international research program Inscriptions grecques et latines de la Syrie (IGLS) aims to make the edition of the corpus of Greek and Latin inscriptions of ancient Syria accessible online. Led by the HiSoMA laboratory, the project is based on the exploitation of the archives kept at the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée (MOM), a research federation hosted by the Lumière University Lyon 2 and on field missions in Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. The IGLS corpus is published by the Institut français du Proche-Orient (Ifpo) in the Bibliothèque archéologique et historique (BAH). It currently counts more than twenty volumes, three of which belong to the sub-series of Jordanian inscriptions (I. Jordanie = IGLS 21).
  21. Greek Epigraphic society
    The Greek Inscriptions Online project (GIO), promoted by the Greek Epigraphic Society in collaboration with the Hellenic Education & Research Center (HERC) and Attic Inscriptions Online (AIO). GIO is a database collecting translations of epigraphic texts from ancient Greek to modern Greek, accompanied by a short historical and epigraphic commentary. The epigraphs date from the Archaic age to the late Roman Empire and are grouped by provenance and dating, according to the method used for the corpus of the Inscriptiones Grecae.
  22. Attic Inscriptions online (AIO) [e]
    The Attic Inscriptions Online project (AIO), which collects English translations of epigraphic texts from Athens and Attica. The site has a search function allowing the user to carry out specific searches among the epigraphs of the catalog on the basis of various criteria (date, find spots, type of inscription or of monument, original and present location, date of publication on AIO) or on the basis of keyword research. Each translation includes links to the translated Greek text, which refers to an external site or to an AIO page, as well as links to images of the epigraph available online. The translations are supported by two series of academic journals: AIO Papers, which generally discusses some epigraphs or groups of epigraphs collected in the catalog, and AIUK Papers, which collects volumes of Attic inscriptions of collections from the United Kingdom. The page also links to a YouTube channel which contains videos concerning single or groups of epigraphs, mostly preserved in UK collections.
  23. Epigraphic database Heildelberg [e]
    Webpage of the Epigraphic Database Heidelberg, a project promoted by the Heidelberg Akademie der Wissenschaft, which gathers about 82,000 texts of Latin and bilingual (Greek-Latin) inscriptions of the Roman Empire, grouped by region and geographical provenance. The Search function allows the user to carry out specific queries based on various criteria, such as key words, provenance or even material data concerning the inscriptions. Several epigraphs are accompanied by photographic reproductions and drawings. Furthermore, among the results the browser exhibits some information regarding the exact find spots of the inscription. In the Bibliography section, the user can carry out specific research about updated published bibliography using various criteria (number of epigraphs, author, title, year of publication, pages, place of publication, concordances with the Année Epigraphice, the CIL and other corpora).

Institutions, centers for study and research

  1. Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres
    Official site of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, an institute for the study of epigraphy, archeology, the history of Gaul and oriental studies. The foundation is also engaged in the study of the Parisian papyri of Herculaneum, conducted by a team of experts guided by D. Delattre and aimed at the publication of the edition of the papyri accompanied by the multispectral photographs.
  2. Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents
    Official site of the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents, connected with the Oxford University, for the study of documentary witnesses of ancient world (epigraphy, papyrology, numismatic and prosopography). The Archive section includes two subsections: the first dedicated to the biographical profiles of some scholars of the last century and the other containing photographic reproductions of a collection of about 25,000 squeezes of Greek inscriptions of various provenance. Among the ongoing projects there are also the CPI I (The Corpus of Ptolemaic Inscriptions), the project CHANGE (the development of the monetary economy of ancient Anatolia circa 630 - 30 BC), Crossreads (text, materiality, and multiculturalism at the crossroads of the ancient Mediterranean), OXUS-INDUS, the Romano British Writing Tables, LatinNow, the project ARCH, RIB (Roman Inscriptions of Britain) and finally a project focused on the Hellenistic inscriptions of Cyprus. The “Links” section collects rich web references referring to epigraphy, papyrology, onomastic and prosopography.
  3. Institut de papyrologie de la Sorbonne [p]
    Website connected with the Institut de papyrologie de la Sorbonne, reporting news about ongoing projects, its members, and a series of papyrological sites. The section Collection de Papyrus allows the users to have access to the photographic reproductions of the papyri collection (for which see the section Images).
  4. Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Altertums-wissenschaften: Institut für Papyrologie [p]
    Beside information about the institution, the related publications and its members, the website offers a catalogue of digital images of papyri from the Heidelberger Sammlung and from the collections of the Institut für Papyrologie, (for which see the section Images), good information about projects in papyrology and useful links.
  5. Center for epigraphical and palaeographical studies in Ohio
    Site of the Center for Epigraphical and Palaeographical Studies, a research centre of Ohio University (College of Arts and Sciences) focused on the study of Greek and Latin inscriptions and manuscripts. The page reports a list of links to sources of various interests concerning epigraphic documents, manuscripts and coins. Under the “Resources” section a wide collection of websites is available regarding epigraphy and paleography. The site also offers information about the research and teaching activities of the Center under the section Seminar and Summer Course.
  6. Corpus dei papiri filosofici greci e latini [p]
    Webpage of the Corpus dei Papiri filosofici greci e latini, a project of the Accademia Toscana di Scienze e Lettere “La Colombaria”.
  7. Digital Epigraphy and Archeology (DEA) [e]
    Digital Epigraphy and Archeology (DEA) of the University of Florida is an interdisciplinary project aimed at the development of new open access research tools for humanities and the application of digital humanities to documents of the ancient world. The site also presents examples of 2d and 3d reproductions of some selected inscriptions.
  8. Pinakes [c]
    Pinakes is an online database gathering information about Greek manuscripts prior to the 16th century.
  9. LGPN
    Online version of the Lexicon of Greek Personal Names, an onomastic lexicon which collects Greek personal names from the archaic age to the late imperial period.
  10. Laboratorio di epigrafia greca Ca’ Foscari [e]
    Webpage of the laboratory of epigraphy of the Department of Humanities of the University Ca’ Foscari of Venice: the site presents information about the research fields and the academic and educational activities of the laboratory. Under the section “online resources” the users can have access to a number of databases and websites concerning the epigraphic studies. The laboratory promotes national and international research projects (Venice Squeeze Project. Calchi epigrafici online), in addition to the publication of the journal Axon, Iscrizioni storiche greche and of the series Diabaseis.
  11. CISPE Marcello Gigante Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanesi [p]
    Site of the CISPE, il Centro Internazionale per lo Studio dei Papiri Ercolanesi; the site offers information about the history of the Centre and the excavations at Herculaneum, as well as about the research projects and the unrolling methods of the Herculaneum papyri. The Centre is also engaged in the elaboration and the update of the database Chartes (, which allows the users to conduct research about single Herculaneum papyri, with information concerning their dating, unrolling method, dimensions, state of preservation and bibliographic references. The papyri are also accompanied by the relative photographic reproductions.
  12. Istituto Papirologico Vitelli
    Website of the Istituto Papirologico Vitelli of Florence, reporting information about the history of the Institute, its collections, publications and research and educational activities. The website also offers a link to the webpage of the Papiri della Società Italiana (PSI;, containing the digital catalogue of the Papiri della Società Italiana, of the Papiri della Biblioteca Laurenziana and of the Tebtynis Papyri of the University of Padua. The site allows the users to conduct searches concerning the papyri collection, provided with general information and bibliographic references and accompanied by photographic reproductions of the documents.
  13. Centro di studi papirologici dell’Università del Salento [p]
    Website of the Centro di Studi Papirologici of the University of Salento, offering information about the educational and research activities of the Centre.
  14. The Sara B. Aleshire Center for the Study of Greek Epigraphy (University of California, Berkeley) [e]
    The site presents a database containing some photographs of inscriptions and squeezes classified by their geographic provenance.
  15. E-Stampages [e]
    The E-Stampages project aims at the digitization of the squeezes collection of inscriptions from different regions of the Greek world.
  16. Centre de papyrologie et épigraphie grecque [p]
    Site of the Centre de papyrologie et épigraphie grecque, a research centre focused on the study of Greco-Roman Egypt and engaged in various projects of publications of papyrological and epigraphical documents.
  17. CeDoPaL
    Website of the Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire, research centre of the University of Liege. The site presents information about the educational and research activities of the centre and an in-progress database (Mertens-Pack 3; MP3), including the catalogue of Greek and Latin literary papyri.

Academic materials

  1. Saxa loquuntur [e]
    Introduction to the epigraphic studies prepared by Onno van Nijf (University of Groningen), which concisely enumerates paper and digital resources as well as other useful tools.
  2. Einführung in das studium der griechische philologie - Jan R. Stenger [e]
    A concise introduction to the various fields of the study of ancient Greece and Rome, containing short, but useful sketches of epigraphy, papyrology and paleography, to be read in PDF format. Powered by the Institut für Klassische Altertumskunde of the Christian-Albrechts Univeristy, Kiel.
  3. Liddel-Scott-Jones Lexicon
    On-line version of one of the most important tools in Greek Lexicography. The explanation for each word is the same as in the old lexicon, but it is possible to view quotations directly in their context. Website powered by Thesaurus Greace Linguae.
  4. DGE
    Diccionario Griego-Español (DGE), an in-progress Greek-Spanish vocabulary currently available to the letter E.
  5. Greek Paleography. From Antiquity to the Renaissance [c]
    The section of the website of the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, dedicated to an introduction to Greek palaeography with examples of the different kinds of writings beginning from the majuscule up to the writings of the 15th-16th centuries.


  1. Images of ostraka from Didyma
    The webpage of the Institut français d’archéologie orientale hosts black & white pictures of the ostraka found at Didymoi, a Roman outpost in the Eastern Egyptian desert (1st century BC-7 century AD). The photo gallery is edited by H. Cuivigny, author of Didymoi. Une garnison romaine dans le désert Oriental d’Égypte, II. Les textes , FIFAO, 67, Le Caire 2012, which is the reference book for the transcriptions of all the texts in the site. The contrast in the photos is good and they respresent really interesting materials not only for Greek palaeography but also for Roman and Christian history.
  2. Images of inscriptions from Eleusis
    Website edited by Cornell University collecting the digitized corpus of the inscriptions of the sanctuary of Eleusis; the images are provided with information concerning the nature of the inscription, documentary materials and some bibliographic references.
  3. PapPal [p]
    PapPal gathers the images of dated papyri with the aim of illustrating the development of writing and at the same time as support for a more precise dating of still undated documents.
  4. Digital images of papyri at the Heidelberger Papyrus Sammlung [p]
    A great number of images of papyri from important collections. Photos are available in two different resolutions, accompanied by a thorough description of the document and a link to the Greek text. The cited texts were published in the following collections: Veröffentlichungen aus der Heidelberger Papyrus-Sammlung (VHP); Literarische griechische Texte der Heidelberger Papyrussammlung (P.Heid. I); Neue Texte aus dem antiken Unterricht; Papyri in honorem Johannis Bingen octogenarii (P.Bingen); The Bilingual Family Archive of Dryton, His Wife Apollonia and their Daughter Senmouthis (P.Dryton); Griechische Papyri der Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Hamburg (P.Hamb. IV); Das Archiv des Nepheros und verwandte Texte (P.Neph.); Das Archiv des Phrurarchen Dioskurides (154-145 v.Chr.?) (P.Phrur.Diosk.); Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis (144/3-133/2 v.Chr.) (P.Polit.Iud.); Essays and Texts in Honor of J. David Thomas (P.Thomas); Sammelbuch griechischer Urkunden aus Ägypten.
  5. Immagini di papiri dalla Collection des papyrus de la Sorbonne [p]
    “Images” section of the Collection des papyrus de la Sorbonne. The image search can be made both by collection (P. Bouriant, P. Enteuxeis P. Count, P. Lille, P. Reinach, P. Sorbonne, P. Thoumis) and by papyrus typology, literary or documentary). The photos are presented in two resolutions and are provided with information concerning the documents.
    One of the many projects undertaken by the Centre for the Study of Ancient Documents. Rich galleries of images taken from squeezes, distributed according to their location and presented in excellent digital form. No transcription is to be found at the website, but all the references to position of the inscription in the catalogues and location of the original are provided:
    A very good archive of digital images from the rich collection of squeezes of the OHI.
  8. The imaging papyri project
    Site, published by Oxford University, offering online access to the papyrus collections of Oxyrhynchus, Herculaneum, Antinoupoli and the Supplementum Magicum. The Search section provides access to information on the papyri (period, date of publication, provenance, place held, type of document, format and material) accompanied by two-resolution images of the papyri.


  1. Fonts Unicode
    Webpage of the Thesaurus Linguae Grecae containing a list of Unicode Fonts and information about fonts and the ways to download them. The page also reports useful information for the computer writing of polytonic Greek.
  2. Typegreek
    An online Greek Unicode keyboard.
  3. Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI)
    Section Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) of the website Cultural Heritage Imaging, furnishing information about the RTI computational method applied to ancient documents (manuscripts, epigraphs, papyri).
  4. Pythia
    Program PYTHIA, a deep learning model for the textual reconstruction of Greek epigraphs.

Museums and collections

  1. Epigraphic Museum of Athens [e]
    Site of the Epigraphic Museum of Athens containing a history of the collections, an introduction to the items therein preserved, and information useful for visitors concerning exhibitions, activities and events organized by the museum. The website also offers a planimetric description of the museum accompanied by photos of some rooms of the museum.
  2. Museo Lapidario Maffeiano [e]
    Webpage of the Museo Lapidario Maffeiano. The site offers information concerning the museum collection with concise descriptions and some photos of the exhibits.
  3. Museo archeologico nazionale di Napoli Sezione epigrafica [e]
    Epigraphic section of the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. devoted to the large heritage of epigraphical documents of MANN, collected starting from the 18th century through new discoveries and acquisitions. The collection consists of two thousand texts in Latin, two hundred texts in Greek and around one hundred texts in Italic languages.
  4. Écriture & Inscriptions – Louvre [e]
    Section Écriture & Inscriptions of the Louvre Museum, with digitalized images of papyri and inscriptions kept in the museum.
  5. Duke Papyri [p]
    This website offers images and useful tools related to the collection of papyri of Duke Library. The documents are grouped not only according to language, script, and contents, but also by state of preservation, material aspects and historical context. The site presents photographic reproductions of the papyri in two resolutions followed by brief descriptions of the manufacts and bibliographic references, also offering some general information concerning the Duke archive and the development of papyrology, with rich bibliographic references.
  6. The Carlsberg Papyri [p]
    The website traces the history of the Carlsberg collection and specifies its contents in a catalogue offering some example images in the Highlights section. The site also presents a bibliographic section about the papyri of the catalogue and a list of the concordances with other papyrological documents of various origins.
  7. The Kölner Papyri [p]
    Digitized corpus of the Cologne papyri. The documents are provided with high resolution photos accompanied by a brief description and some bibliographic references.
  8. Papyrus Project [p]
    Webpage “Papyrus Project”, a database displaying the collections of digitized papyri based on the framework MyCoRe. The site presents photographic reproductions of the documents accompanied by descriptions and bibliographic references. This project, promoted by the Leipzig University, gathers the papyri collections from many European universities, especially German (Basel, Bonn, Bremen, Budapest, Erlangen, Freiburg, Gießen, Halle, Hamburg, Jena, Köln, Leipzig, Marburg, Torgau, Würzburg).
  9. Papyrology Collection. University of Michigan Library [p]
    Papyrological section of the library of the University of Michigan. The page offers information about the collection and contains a database allowing the users to have access to the photographic reproductions of the papyri, accompanied by a brief description and some bibliographic references.
  10. Princeton University Library Papyrus [p]
    Papyrological section of the library of Princeton University. The site offers information about the papyrological collection and shows the photographic reproductions of a selection of papyri.
  11. The Center for the Tebtunis Papyri (CTP) University of California Berkeley [p]
    Webpages of the papyrological collection of the Tebtunis papyri edited by Berkeley University. The site presents some indications regarding the papyrological collection and offers high resolution photographs of the documents accompanied by some general information.
  12. Squeeze Collection - Cornell University Library [e]
    Collection of Cornell University, which collects the squeezes made during the Cornell Expedition to Asia Minor and the Assyro-Babylonian Orient (1907-1908).
  13. Epigraphical (Squeeze) Collections - British Institute at Ankara [e]
    Squeeze section of the website of the British Institute at Ankara, which presents images of the squeezes of inscriptions coming from Turkey.
  14. The McGregor Squeeze Collection - University of British Columbia [e]
    Collection of squeezes of Greek inscriptions of the University of British Columbia, curated by the Department of Classical, Near Eastern, and Religious Studies (CNERS).
  15. Krateros - Institute for Advanced Study. [e]
    Krateros contains a digital collection of epigraphical squeezes edited by the Institute for Advanced Studies (IAS).
  16. Österreichische Nationalbibliothek Papyrussammlung [p]
    Papyrological section of the website of the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek with information on the history of the papyrus collection of the Library and its storage, with news on events and publications.

Collections of texts and digital libraries

  1. Searchable Greek Inscriptions [e]
    The Packard Humanities Institute, the Cornell University and the Ohio State University sponsor this project aimed at the elaboration and storage of the entire corpus of the hitherto known Greek inscriptions.
  2. Perseus Digital Library
    A noteworthy digital library, offering not only a great number of ancient sources, but also manuals and other tools for the study of ancient history and literature. Of interest for epigraphists, e.g.: L. D. CASKEY, J. D. BEAZLEY, Attic Vase Paintings in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  3. Bibliothèque Nationale de France [c]
    Website of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France, which allows visitors to have access to various libraries or catalogues of manuscripts: Catalogue géneral, Catalogue Collectif de France, Gallica and Archives et Manuscrits.
  4. Internet Culturale
    Internet Culturale gathers digital catalogues and collections of Italian libraries.
  5. Diogenes
    Diogenes is a two-version platform (Desktop and Web), connected to other similar platforms such as Perseus, which offers a search engine for lexical searches in Greek and Latin texts.
  6. Trismegistos
    Trismegistos is a platform conceived in 2004 as part of the project Multilingualism and Multiculturalism in Graeco-Roman Egypt, which aimed to study linguistic shifts in relation to cultural identity, creating an online database of Greco-Roman papyrus material in Egyptian scripts in close collaboration with existing tools of Greek papyrology, the Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis griechischer Urkunden aus Ägypten [HGV], and its literary counterpart, the Leuven Database of Ancient Books [LDAB]. Over the years, Trismegistos has expanded in multiple directions; from 2008 onwards the people and places mentioned in these sources from Egypt have been grouped into TM People and TM Places. Since 2010 Trismegistos has also considered Latin epigraphic texts and the toponyms they contain and a similar work concerns Greek epigraphy (starting from 2018). Trismegistos gathers an enormous number of documents by integrating different sources. For each text essential information is provided, the reference bibliography and links to other digital resources that offer transcriptions and images. The site also includes a large variety of interfaces for searching for material: by languages or scripts, by characters or places mentioned, by authors, publishers, modern collection and more. If available in online repositories, Trismegistos also collects unpublished texts.


    Lilian Hamilton Jeffery (1915-1986) is the author of The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece (Oxford 1951), a ground-breaking Essay, which still represents, 60 years after its coming out, fundamental reading for everyone facing the problems of the development and diffusion of the Greek alphabet in its most ancient phase. The biographical webpage is part of the website hosting her notes and sketches, for which see above at POINIKASTAS.
    A concise bibliography of Louis Robert, one of the greatest epigraphists ever. This page is part of the website of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres of the Institut de France, whose library has a specific section containing materials left by this scholar.
  3. Bibliography of B.P.Grenfell
    Bibliography of one of the 'fathers' of papyrology, at a website dedicated to the history of his family.


  1. Gnomon on-line
    Bibliographic database Gnomon (GBD), which allows the users to conduct bibliographic searches in the domain of classical studies on the basis of various research criteria or by inserting keywords.
  2. Kernos Epigraphical Bullettin
    The journal Kernos, focused on ancient Greek religion, publishes in each issue a section devoted to the Epigraphic Bulletin for Greek Religion, a collection of bibliographic news about epigraphic publications concerning Greek religion.
  3. Guide de l’Épigraphiste [e]
    Informative site of the Guide de l’épigraphiste. Bibliographie choisie des épigraphies antiques et médiévales, a pubblication that gathers information on the main bibliographic tools for the epigraphic science.
  4. Bulletin épigraphique [e]
    Website of the Bulletin Épigraphique, edited by the Revue des Études Grecques, which annually offers a list of bibliographic references relating to the publications concerning epigraphic documents written in Greek from the archaic age up to the byzantine period.
  5. Année épigraphique [e]
    Online version of the Année Épigraphique, an annual journal which gathers the new Greek and Latin inscriptions edited during the year. Each issue is structured according to the geographical provenance of the inscriptions.
  6. Bibliotheca Classica Selecta: Papyrologie [p]
    Bibliographic section of the website Bibliotheca Classica Selecta: Papyrologie di J. Poucet, which offers, for educational purposes, a list of bibliographic resources concerning papyrology.
  7. Checklist of Greek, Latin, Demotic, and Coptic papyri, Ostraca and Tablets [p]
    Checklist of Editions of Greek and Latin Papyri, Ostraca and Tablets, an online database offering bibliographic information about papyri, ostraca, and tablets.
  8. Konkordanzen zu den Inscriptiones Graecae [e]
    Konkordanzen zu den Inscriptiones Graecae est réalisé par l’Université de Münster. Cette page contient les concordances IG-SEG et les références aux éditions précédentes et successives des IG.
  9. Cefael - Collections de l’École française d'Athènes
    Cefael (Collections de l’École française d’Athènes), which collects all the publication of the École française d’Athènes from 1877.
  10. Année Philologique
    Database for bibliographic research of the Année Philologique.
  11. Bryn Mawr Classical Review
    Database for the bibliographic research Bryn Mawr Classical Review.
  12. Claros [e]
    CLAROS. Concordance of Greek inscriptions, a database offering bibliographic concordances concerning Greek epigraphic documents and a list of bibliographic abbreviations.