Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- ca. 1700-950 B.C.


  1. F.M. Cross (1954) The Evolution of the Proto-Canaanite Alphabet in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Vol. 134 pp. 15-24 (eng)
  2. F.M. Cross (1967) The Origin and Early Evolution of the Alphabet in Eretz Israel Vol. 8 pp. 8*-24* (eng)
  3. F.M. Cross (1980) Newly Found Inscriptions in Old Canaanite and Early Phoenician Scripts in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Vol. 238 pp. 1-20 (eng)
  4. É. Puech (1986) L’origine de l’alphabet. Documents en alphabet linéaire et cunéiforme du IIe millénaire in Revue Biblique pp. 161-213 (fra)
  5. J. Naveh (1987) The Early History of the Alphabet Jerusalem (eng)
  6. B. Sass (1988) The Genesis of the Alphabet and Its Development in the Second Millenium B.C. Wiesbaden (eng)
  7. B. Sass (2005) The Alphabet at the Turn of the Millennium. The West Semitic Alphabet ca. 1150-850 BCE. The Antiquity of the Arabian, Greek and Phrygian Alphabets Tel Aviv (eng)
  8. G. Garbini (2006) Introduzione all’epigrafia semitica Brescia (ita)
  9. R.E. Tappy - P.K. McCarter (2008) Literate Culture and Tenth-Century Canaan: The Tel Zayit Abecedary in Context Winona Lake, Ind (eng)
  10. A.M. Maeir, S.J. Wimmer, A. Zukerman, A. Demsky (2008) A Late Iron Age I/Early Iron Age II Old Canaanite Inscription from Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel: Palaeography, Dating, and Historical-Cultural Significance in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research Vol. 351 pp. 39-71 (eng)
  11. C.A. Rollston (2010) Writing and Literacy in the World of Ancient Israel: Epigraphic Evidence from the Iron Age Atlanta (eng)
  12. C.A. Rollston (2011) The Khirbet Qeiyafa Ostracon: Methodological Musings and Caveats in Tel Aviv Vol. 38 pp. 67-82 (eng)
  13. P.K. McCarter, Sh. Bunimowitz, Z. Lederman (2011) An Archaic Ba‘l Inscription from Tel Beth-Shemesh (1150-1100) in Tel Aviv Vol. 38 pp. 179-193 (eng)
  14. I. Finkelstein - B. Sass (2013) The West Semitic Alphabetic Inscriptions, Late Bronze II to Iron IIA: Archeological Context, Distribution and Chronology in Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel Vol. 2 pp. 149-220 (eng)
  15. E. Mazar - D. Ben-Shlomo - S. Ahituv (2013) An Inscribed Pithos from the Ophel, Jerusalem in Israel Exploration Journal Vol. 63 pp. 39-49 (eng)
  16. G.J. Hamilton (2015) Two Methodological Issues Concerning the Expanded Collection of Early Alphabetic Texts in J.M. Hutton – A.D. Rubin (eds.), Epigraphy, Philology, & the Hebrew Bible: Methodological Perspectives on Philological & Comparative Study of the Hebrew Bible in Honor of Jo Ann Hackett SBL, Atlanta pp. 127-156 (EN)
  17. C.A. Rollston (2021) The Emergence of Alphabetic Scripts in R. Hasselbach‐Andee (ed.) A Companion to Ancient Near Eastern Languages Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, USA pp. 65-81 (EN)
  18. C.A. Rollston et al. (2021) The Jerubba‘al Inscription from Khirbet al-Ra‘i: A Proto-Canaanite (Early Alphabetic) Inscription in Jerusalem Journal of Archaeology Vol. 2 pp. 1-15 (EN)