Ancient writing systems in the Mediterranean

A critical guide to electronic resources


- 18th-14th cent. B.C.


  1. A.H. Gardiner (1916) The Egyptian Origin of the Semitic Alphabet in The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology Vol. 3 pp. 1-16 (eng)
  2. H. Grimme (1923) Althebräische Inschriften vom Sinai: Alphabet, Textliches, Sprachliches mit Folgerungen Heinz Lafaire, Hannover (deu)
  3. R.F. Butin (1932) The Protosinaitic Inscriptions in Harvard Theological Review Vol. 25 pp. 130-203 (eng)
  4. W.F. Albright (1948) The Early Alphabetic Inscriptions from Sinai and Their Decipherment in Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research N. 110 pp. 6-22 (eng)
  5. W.F. Albright (1966) The Proto-Sinaitic Inscriptions and Their Decipherment Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge MA (eng)
  6. B. Sass (1988) The Genesis of the Alphabet and Its Development in the Second Millenium B.C. Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden (eng)
  7. E. Puech (2002) Notes sur quatre inscriptions protosinaïtiques in Revue Biblique Vol. 109 pp. 5-39 (fra)
  8. B. Sass (2004-05) The Genesis of the Alphabet and its Development in the Second Millennium B.C. – Twenty Years Later in De Kêmi à Birīt Nāri Vol. 2 pp. 137-156 (eng)
  9. J. Darnell, et al. (2005) Two Early Alphabetic Inscriptions from the Wadi el-Hôl: New Evidence for the Origin of the Alphabet from the Western Desert of Egypt in Annual of the American Schools of Oriental Research Vol. 59 pp. 63-124 (eng)
  10. G.J. Hamilton (2006) The Origins of the West Semitic Alphabet in Egyptian Scripts The Catholic Biblical Association of America, Washington (eng)
  11. S.J. Wimmer (2010) A Proto-Sinaitic Inscription in Timna/Israel: New Evidence on the Emergence of the Alphabet in Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections Vol. 2 pp. 1-12 (eng)
  12. A.-S. Dalix (2012) Notes sur les inscriptions protosinaïtiques in P. Tallet (ed.), La zone minière pharaonique du Sud-Sinaï. I, Catalogue complémentaire des inscriptions du Sinaï Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale, Le Caire Vol. I pp. 297-327 (fra)
  13. A. Wilson-Wright (2013) Interpreting the Sinaitic Inscriptions in Context: A New Reading of Sinai 345 in Hebrew Bible and Ancient Israel Vol. 2 pp. 136-148 (eng)
  14. O. Goldwasser (2016) From the Iconic to the Linear. The Egyptian Scribes of Lachish and the Modification of the Early Alphabet in the Late Bronze Age in I. Finkelstein – C. Robin – T. Römer, (eds), Alphabets, Texts and Artifacts in the Ancient Near East. Studies presented to Benjamin Sass Van Dieren, Paris pp. 118-160 (EN)
  15. L.D. Morenz (2019) Sinai und Alphabetschrift. Die frühesten alphabetischen Inschriften und ihr kanaanäisch-ägyptischer Entstehungshorizont im Zweiten Jahrtausend v. Chr. EB Verlag, Berlin (DE)
  16. B. Haring (2020) Ancient Egypt and the Earliest Known Stages of Alphabetic Writing in P.J. Boyes - P.M. Steele (eds), Understanding Relations Between Scripts II: Early Alphabets Oxbow, Oxford pp. 53-67 (EN)
  17. C.A. Rollston (2020) The Emergence of Alphabetic Scripts in R. Hasselbach‐Andee (ed) A Companion to Ancient Near Eastern Languages Wiley Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ, USA pp. 65-81 (EN)
  18. F. Höflmayer et al. (2021) Early Alphabetic Writing in the Ancient Near East: the 'missing link' from Tel Lachish in Antiquity Vol. 95/381 pp. 705-719 (EN)